Posts Tagged ‘Greece’

The Flag Dispute between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia

April 18, 2008


Official Greece accuses its northern neighbour, the Republic of Macedonia for “stealing the Ancient Greek heritage”, which according to the Greek side also includes Ancient Macedonia and its symbols, one of them being the so called Sun of Vergina. The symbol was once used as an emblem on the flag of the Republic of Macedonia, which caused a dispute between the two countries (actually it was an unilateral protest from the Greek side).
Greece is so fast in accusing other nations for “stealing history” that she forgets that  she is the one that actually stole a symbol of another nation- an old English flag:

Whoops! Who’s the real thief now?

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Left: The flag used on the ships of the colonial English Honourable East India Company established in 1600; Right: The modern Greek flag initialy adopted in 1822. So, Greece nicked a foreign flag, changed the colors.. and Voila! We have a flag! Before you disagree, count the number of the stripes, both flags have 9. The Greeks claim that they represent the 9 sylables of their Independence War motto: “Elefteria i Thanatos!” (“Freedom or Death!”). Why should a 17 century English flag also have exactly 9 stripes then?  The Greek cross in the canton is evidently stolen from the red English St. George’s cross and re-painted in white. Shame…
English Honourable East India Company flag historical drawing
The East India Company flag changed over time. There has been much debate and discussion regarding the number of stripes on the flag and the order of the stripes. Historical documents and paintings show many variations from nine to thirteen stripes, with some images showing the top stripe being red and others showing the top stripe being white. In any case, its obvious that the whole concept of this flag was stolen by Greece and incorporated in its modern flag.
Backround information

There’s a geographical region in South-Eastern Europe called Macedonia. It was a single geographical entity until the Balkan Wars in 1913 when it was divided between: Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania. Thats how Greece got its own province of Macedonia (~50% of the whole region), a province especialy rich with Ancient Macedonian history and archaeology. There, the greek government imposed a harsh policy of ethnic cleansing and assimilation against the native ethnic Macedonians, and it also supported a colonisation of Greek refugees from Asia Minor, following the Greek-Turkish War in the 1920’s. The part once given to Serbia, later succeded to liberate itself during the antifascist struggle in the WWII and to proclaim itself as the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on August 2nd 1944. However, the other parts of the wider Macedonian region remained under foreign Greek, Bulgarian and Albanian annexation.
That republic became a separate constituent country of the former Tito’s Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (a country- in- a- country). As such, within the communist Yugoslav federation, Macedonia had a statehood, its own government, state symbols, police, territorial army (home guard),  Macedonian Academy of sciences and arts, Macedonian Orthodox Church and even a bureau for foreign affairs.
During the breakup of Yugoslavia, it proclaimed independence in September 1991 and it became what is now the independent Republic of Macedonia with capital of Skopje.

The newly independent country was immediatly confronted by Greece. Official Greece denies the existence of a separate Macedonian nation, the existence of a separate ethnic Macedonian minority on its territory, and it perceived its neighbour as a threat to its northern province. Namelly, official Greece claims an exclusive right over the Ancient Macedonian heritage. Important elements of this are: the very name Macedonia and the Ancient Macedonian symbol, the 16-ray Vergina Sun (or Star), found in what is considered the alleged tomb of the king Phillip II, the father of Alexander the Great. Greece doesnt allow the Republic of Macedonia, which also claims relations to the Ancient Macedonia to use them in any way.

Thats why:

  • Greece, which has its own province of Macedonia demands that the Republic of Macedonia changes it constitutional name (although the UK which has a part called Northern Ireland doesnt demand from the Republic of Ireland to change its name; the US state New Mexico doesnt demand from the country Mexico to change its name).
  • Greece also demanded from the Republic of Macedonia to change its own national flag, which featured the Vergina Sun, claimed by Greece as a Greek symbol (though Ancient Macedonia was not one of  the city-states that comprised the Ancient Greek world, actually it was their worst enemy, just imagine: Jews claiming the nazi swastika as their symbol).

To achieve its goals, official Greece imposed an economic embargo on the Republic of Macedonia in the early 1990’s and started a nationalist lobbying campaign both at home and abroad. Then, the Republic of Macedonia followed a policy of peaceful coexistence with its neighbours. During the 1990s, it was the only former Yugoslav country which stayed away from the Yugoslav Wars and was often refered to as The Oasis of Peace.
As a result of the Greek pressure, the Republic of Macedonia was forced to make many concessions to appease its southern neighbour and to prevent a further conflict:

  • The Republic of Macedonia accepted to join the UN under a provisional name “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” ( F.Y.R.O.M. )
  • Certain changes were made to the Macedonian constitution (to show that the country doesnt have any territorial claims to Greece);
  • The national flag of the Republic of Macedonia with the Vergina Sun was replaced with a new different flag
  • The president Kiro Gligorov had to give a statement that the modern ethnic Macedonians are descendents of the Slavs who arrived in the Balkans in the 6th century, and who have nothing in common with Ancient Macedonia.

However, despite accepting to be named FYROM in the UN, the Republic of Macedonia rejected to change its constitutional name for domestic use, and for billateral use with those countries who do not object it. Thats how the Republic of Macedonia was recognized under its constitutional name by the USA, Canada, Russian Federation, People’s Republic of China, Turkey and many other countries.

The Flag dispute

Its claimed that the Ancient Macedonians often used a stylized depiction of a sunburst (or a starburst) as their symbol. It can be seen with 16, 8 or 12 sun rays on many archaeological artefacts. Sometimes it can also include a rosette decoration in the middle. One of the most popular version of this symbol is the 16 rayed Sun of Vergina, found on the larnax (coffin) which allegedly contained the remains of King Phillip II. The Vergina Sun is claimed as a historical symbol by both the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, which both also claim relation to the Ancient Macedonians. However, Greece demands full exclusive right to the Ancient Macedonian heritage and doesnt want to share it with anyone else. As a result, the two countries have a long term unresolved dispute.

In 1992, the newly independent Republic of Macedonia adopted a new flag which included the 16-ray Vergina Sun (on a red backround), which led to protests from official Greece. Under Greek pressure, in 1995 it was replaced with the current flag of the Republic of Macedonia, which includes a different stylized form of a sun.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (1992-1995)

Its important to note that the sun symbol was often featured in the old folklore art of the ethnic Macedonians, on their historical flags and other artefacts, and even on the coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, which includes a rising sun with 8 visible rays (the other 8 from the Vergina Sun being hidden behind the mountain).

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Traditional ethnic Macedonian folk art
Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Traditional ethnic Macedonian jewerly

CLICK TO ENLARGE: Left: flag of the emigrant ethnic Macedonian revolutionary society in St. Petersburg, Russia, 1914 feat. Alexander’s horse Buchephalos, represented as an unicorn according to the old legend, and a sun symbol in the bottom left angle; Right: Insurgent flag against the Ottoman rule, 1903 feat. a sun symbol on the left.
Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

The Coat of Arms initialy adopted for the Socialist Republic of Macedonia after WWII. Still in official use in the Republic of Macedonia.

The main Greek rationale for the flag dispute was that the Sun of Vergina is allegedly a greek symbol, and that its use by the Republic of Macedonia is an act of stealing of the ancient greek heritage. Moreover, the Greek side emphasised the fact that the symbol was discovered on its territory.

King Philip’s larnax

However, Greece forgot to mention that her share of the whole Macedonian region was forcibly annexed by her armies in the Balkan Wars in 1913. Prior to that, the territory has never belonged to Greece.

Also, its very important to mention that later, this symbol was also discovered on many archaeological artefacts found in the southern parts of the Republic of Macedonia, which were too part of the Ancient Macedonian Kingdom- a fact deliberately ignored by Greece, which continously repeats that: “There is only ONE Macedonia, and its in Greece”.

CLICK TO ENLARGE: Certified museum copies of archaeological artefacts featuring the Ancient Macedonian Sun/Star symbol (known as the Vergina Sun), excavated in Ohrid, a city of a great historical and cultural significance once belonging to the Ancient Macedonian Kingdom, situated on the Ohrid Lake in the Republic of Macedonia. Shall we call the symbol the Sun of Ohrid from now on?

Another important, but dubious Greek claim is that the symbol was firstly discovered during the excavations of the Ancient Macedonian Royal Tombs of Aigai, in the village of Vergina in Greek Macedonia, by prof. Manolis Andronikos in 1977. Some Greeks may agree that the symbol may have been known prior to that, but just as an artistic ornament without any historical significance. According to them, only after the discovery of the Royal Tombs, the true nature of this symbol was discovered- its an Ancient Macedonian royal emblem.
An entertaining twist in this story is that they dont know (or dont want to know) that the symbol actually appeared publicly all around the globe decades before 1977. It was featured in its 8 ray version on the shields of the Ancient Macedonian warriors in the 1956 epic film Alexander The Great starring Richard Burton. Its an American movie, quite pro-Greek biased, so it cannot be accused of advocating the Republic of Macedonia’s point of view.

Richard Burton Alexander Vergina before Andronikos
Screenshot: Richard Burton sporting the Vergina Sun in Alexander The Great, 21 years before prof. Andronikos “discovered” it
Richard Burton Alexander Vergina before Andronikos

How come the Greeks are not aware that this symbol was internationaly recognized as an Ancient Macedonian royal or state emblem far before the prof. Andronikos’ discovery in 1977? The symbol that he “discovered” has been already used by the ethnic Macedonians for centuries, as we explained above. For the Greeks, until 1977, this symbol was largely (or completely) unknown.

But anyway, Greece continues to claim an exclusive right to it. It even registered it in the World Intellectual Property Organization and finally, in 1993 it placed it on the newly created flag of its own Macedonian province, but on a blue backround.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Flag of the Greek province of Macedonia

However, almost 20 years since the start of this dispute, official Greece fails to explain: how come that many countries use same symbols on their flags, but they dont confront eachother because of that:

  • Argentina and Uruguay

Same sun symbol in different variations on the both flags. Its called the Sun of May, a representation of the Inca sun god Inti, and a bizzare fact is that it has 16 sunrays, exactly same number as the Vergina Sun. It appeared publicly for a first time on Argentinian coins in 1813. An additional bizzare thing is that, the flag of Uruguay features 9 alternating blue/ white stripes, exactly the same number and color as on the modern Greek flag (“Eleferia i Thanatos”?!). So should Argentina now sue Uruguay over “stealing” its sun symbol? Or should Greece sue Uruguay over the blue/white stripes? Or to sue them both over the “stolen” 16 rayed sun symbol?! You may say well, two neighbouring South American nations, they both have a right to claim the pre-Colombian heritage although they speak Spanish today. Good. Accordingly, can the modern ethnic Macedonians, considered Slavic by the Greeks, use the Vergina Sun then?

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • Almost all of the Nordic countries use the Nordic Cross

It was initially used on the Danish flag- the Dannebrog, and was later incorporated in the flags of: Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland. Can Greece explain, how come that Denmark doesnt object the use of this symbol by its Scandinavian neighbours? Isn’t it a “stealing of the Danish history”? Some may say that these nations are ethnicaly or historicaly interrelated, so maybe thats why they use a same symbol. That can be only a partially accepted explanation, because the Finns are not related to their Germanic neighbours, but to the Finno-Ugric peoples like the Hungarians. Also, historicaly, until proclaiming its independence, Finland was under Russian domination, and today is the only republic in a region filled with monarchies. Basically, Finland has very little incommon with Denmark, but still,  it uses a symbol taken from the Dannebrog, the Danish national pride since the Middle Ages!

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • Poland, Indonesia and Monaco

The whole “difference” between these flags is: between Poland and Inonesia- the order of the colors, and between Indonesia and Monaco only the the ratio. Basically, completely same flags of three completely unrelated nations.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

  • Republic of Ireland and the African country Ivory Coast

The sole “difference” seems to be the order of the colors and the ratio. Same flags. Unrelated nations.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • England and Georgia

Both England and Georgia use the red Cross of St. George on a white backround. The difference is that the Georgians have added 4 additonal smaller crosses around it. Otherwise- same. Unrelated nations. The English flag was inspired by the flag of Genoa (Italians, prepare a lawsuit! ;-)).

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • The Czech Republic and Philipines

Similar design. Unrelated nations.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • USA, Liberia and Malaysia

Same stripes, same blue field in the upper left corner and even the star(s) are here. The Afro-American and the Liberian populations are indeed related, but what Malaysia has incommon with them? Should the US now sue Malaysia over stealing its national pride- The Stripes, which symbolize the 13 American colonies that rebeled against the British Crown?

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • United Kingdom and the Autonomous Basque community within Spain

The flag of the United Kingdom, the Union Jack features the 3 crosses: The red Cross of St. George from the English flag; the white St.Andrew’s cross from the Scottish flag and the red St. Patrick’s cross from the old Irish flag. Only the Welsh Red Dragon is missing. The design of the Basque flag was based on the Union Jack. Should the Queen Elizabeth II sue them now?

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
  • Chile and the US state of Texas

Almost same flags.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

  • US State of Hawaii

Hold on, hold on! Did I just said the US STATE of Hawaii? How come that a federal unit of a country which once fought for independence against the Brits is now using the Union Jack?? Where are the Greeks now to protest the Hawaiian “stealing” of British heritage? Hawaii is not a British colony or a protectorate or a dominion or an overseas territory or whatever. Its part of the United States of America.

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting

And there are milions of other examples…

So why all these countries dont just sue eachother for “stealing” eachother’s history and culture? (if we follow the offical Greek “logical” way of thinking)

IMPORTANT NOTE: All those flags (with the exception of the Basque, the Texan and the Hawaiian flags) are flags of internationaly recognized independent countries. Yet, these flags have never been a cause of any international dispute. The flag of the Greek province of Macedonia has a much lower importance than them because it is a flag of a a geographical and historical province and not of an independent country. Moreover, the flag of Greek Macedonia has no historical significance. It was adopted recently just as a retaliation against the Republic of Macedonia.

Contrary to that, all those nations listed above were fighting wars, conquering other countries and achieveing sport successes under those flag symbols for centuries. For them those symbols have a huge historical and national significance. Still, as you can see, they have absolutely no problem to share those symbols with other nations, unlike Greece which is jealously possesive over the Vergina Sun, although the symbol is most probably not Greek at all. Under that symbol King Philip and his son Alexander were killing Athenian soldiers and conquering and burning the greek city-states. What a paradox.

But anyway, Greece continues to make such a great fuss about  it. The hysteria goes so far, that sometimes the Greek nationalists even forget their real national flag: the well-known one with the blue and white stripes and the cross in the upper left angle.
Instead, they give so much importance to a recently adopted flag of a geographical province:
Since the flag dispute with the Republic of Macedonia began, the Vergina Sun suddenly started to appear everyewhere in Northern Greece: on governmental buildings and offices; at celebrations and political meetings; on various documents, military insignia, tourist souvenirs and even everyday products such as hotel soaps, sugar bags and bus tickets (hopefuly not on condoms and toilet paper too, but everything’s possible in a country where unfortunatelly,  the extreme nationalism is an everyday fact).

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
100 Drachma coins (the former Greek currency later replaced by the euro)

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Hellenic Armed Forces arm patch

Photobucket - Video and Image Hosting
Greek sugar bags (author: cakesniffer)

So after all this, we have a full right to ask: How come all those countries are allowed to have almost same flag designs only with minor differences, while at the same time, the Republic of Macedonia was not allowed to keep its 16-ray sun symbol?

Wasn’t the red backround sufficient enough to differentiate it from the Greek blue version?

Even if we decide to beleive in the official Greek claim that the modern ethnic Macedonians are not descendants of the Ancient Macedonians, but Slavs, still, this sun symbol was found in Ohrid in present-day Republic of Macedonia, so this country has every right to use it, in a same way that the modern Arabic Egyptians have nothing incommon with the Ancient pharaos, but still they are proudly promoting their country with the pyramids and the sphynx.

Greece should finally get rid of its blind ultra chauvinism once and for all. We need peace, stability and cooperation in the Balkans.


Tenure of Flag | Правото на знаме

April 15, 2008

Republic of Macedonia and Republic of Greece, under formulations “First side” and “Second side”, on sep. 13 1995, signed a temporary Accord. With the Accord, Macedonia was forced to change the Macedonian sun of the flag, and Greece abandoned the two years embargo against Macedonia!

But, what’s the point?
Greece claims that have an exclusive right of all ancient history, including this ancient Macedonian symbol, which is used as an official flag of the northern greek province of Makedonia.

How can Greece claim rights of entire ancient history? Does the cross can be used only by one state, Vatican, for example? Does only one state can use the tricolor?

I’m not going to debate whose symbol is the Sun, neither were the Macedonians Hellens, or not? Hire, I’m going to talk about our universal right this sun to be our national flag, with clear distinctions of all other national flags.

Does this flag is distinctive by the following:

Someone argue that this Sun if found just in Kutlesh, and because today, the location is in Greece, only Greeks can use it. But, my dear friends, the archeology is saying something else. The Sun can be found on so many locations in Republic of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Sun, ceramics, III BC, Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia

Take attention on the fact that the first flag was used by independent state, and the second one is just a flag of a province.

And does Sweden have dispute with Denmark or Finland, because they all use the same cross?

Is the same with Norway and Iceland?

Does Ireland has dispute with Ivory Coast?

England and the new flag of Georgia?

Holland and Luxembourg?

Romania and Moldova?

Poland and Indonesia?

Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia…?

The examples are frequent for so little space and time. A man should have honour to admit to him self that is in wrong. Greeks, more than 2300 years are practicing their revenge under the Macedonians because of the Heroneya battle. Their unique purpose is to exterminate the real Macedonian identity. This is not a problem about the name or the flag or something else… the plan is bigger, BIIIIIIGGER THAN WE CAN IMAGINE!!!


На Македонски:

Република Македонија и Република Грција, под формулација “Прва страна” и “Втора страна”, на 13 септември 1995 година, потпишаа Привремена спогодба за пријателски односи и градење на доверба и се обврзаа на почитување на взаемниот суверенитет и територијален интегритет, прифаќајки ги меѓународно признаените државни граници.

Со договорот, Македонија се обврза од државното знаме да го симне македонското сонце (шеснаесеткракото сонце не е пронајдено само во Кутлеш, па така да се нарекува), додека Грција, во рок од 30 дена, да ја прекине блокадата кон Македонија, воведена дури во февруари 1994 година. По ратификацијата на Спогодбата од Собранието на Република Македонија, Грција ги отвори државните граници со Македонија, а десет дена претходно, Собранието го смени и државното знаме.

Но, за што стануваше збор?
Грција тврди дека полага целосно право на овој симбол и е единствена која може да го употребува. Провинцијата Makedonia овој симбол го употребува како официјално знаме.

Но се поставува прашањето: Дали грција може да полага права на целата античка историја? Дали крстот може да биде употребуван како симбол за знаме само од една држава. Дали само една држава смее да употребува тробојка како знаме.

Нема да навлегувам чиј симбол било сонцето, ниту во тоа дали Македонците биле или не биле Елини. Тоа ќе го сторам во друг запис, а фактите, кои Грција не се осмелува да ги види, кажуваат се. Овде сакам да прашам за нашето суверено право Сонцето од Кутлеш да биде знаме на суверената македонска држава, со јасни дистинкции од било кое друго знаме.

Дали ова знаме доволно се разликува од ова:

Некој тврди дека ова сонце е пронајдено исклучиво во Кутлеш, а бидејќи тоа е сега грчка територија, само тие полагаат право на него. Но, драги мои, археологијата кажува нешто друго. Сонцето го има толку многу на територијата на Република Македонија, што не сме ни свесни за тоа. Како за пример, пронајдено е на античка керамика и на многу, мноооооогу монети вдолж и попреку Македонија.

Македонското сонце, керамика, III век п.н.е. Охрид
Обрнете внимание и на тоа дека првото знаме беше употребувано од суверена држава, а второто е само знаме на провинција.

А дали Шведска и се противи на Данска или Финска што употребуваат идентичен крст на знамето?
Дали тоа го прави Норвешка во однос на Исланд?
Дали Ирска има спор со Брегот на Слоновата Коска?
Меѓу Англија и новото знаме на Грузија?

Холандија и Луксембург?
Романија и Молдавија?
Полска и Индонезија?
Русија, Словенија, Словачка…?

Примерите се многубројни за мал простор и време. Човек треба само да има срце за да признае дека греши. Грците веќе 2.300 години покажуваат дека одмаздата заради Херонеја- се уште е актуелна! Нивната единствена цел е елиминирање на вистинскиот македонски идентитет. Воопшто не станува збор за прашањето на името, знамето или слично… овде се работи за нешто многу, МНООООООГУ ПОГОЛЕМО!!!

Macedonian protest at Canberra, Australia

October 30, 2007

Go Macedonians! Let the worlds hear your voice!

Цел свет да знае кои сме и чие име носиме! Сонцето Филипово, нека ве грее и нека ви го осветли патот кон светлината. Вистината е на наша страна! Македонија засекогаш!


July 26, 2007

It is widely known that Greece refuses to acknowledge the existence of national minorities and minority languages. Similarly, in the Greek census of 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 any mention of one’s mother tongue is absent. This is not by chance but, rather, a deliberate policy of the Greek government. In the earlier census of 1940 and 1951 one can find such declarations as “Slavic” language. Whereas, in the census of 1928 one can find a language declaration of “Slav Macedonian.”

However, in the census of 1920, immediately after Greece’s acquisition of the “New Territories” the government of the day offers some revealing information. In the census of 19 December, 1920, the official Greek census form had a separate area asking: “what is your mother tongue? What is the language you speak at home? If your mother tongue is not Greek do you understand Greek? This census document can be found in the book by M. Houliarakis (Geografiki, dioikitiki kai plithismiaki ekseliksi tis Ellados tom G’ page 363)

The data obtained from the census of 1920 offers great detail about the population to the point of distinguishing between deaf males and deaf females. It also includes the data on language and mother tongue.

Unfortunately, the census information relating to the population of the “New Territories” was never made public. This information preceded the exchanges of Christian and Muslim populations between Turkey and Greece or the so-called “voluntary” population exchanges between Greece and Bulgaria.

At that time Greece only published the results from the geographic area of “old Greece” (Sterea, Evoia, Thessalia, Arta, Ionian Islands, Cyclades, Peloponese…). Five volumes containing census data from the “New Territories,” which included information on religion and language, were prohibited from being made public.

In the archives of the Census Council or the General Archives of the Greek state we shall not find census data on the northern territories (the new territories of Macedonia and Western Thrace) for the census period of 1920.

However, page 182 of the volume of census data for 1920 (published in 1929) for the area of Trikala (in Thessaly and Arta just south of the new territories) the following linguistic categories are reported for mother tongue:

Greek, Spanish, Romi, Koutsovlach, Albanian, Bulgarian, Serbian and 37 individuals from Trikala who declared their mother tongue as Macedonian. [page 1] | [page 2]

This is official census data published by the Greek government wherein, not only is the Macedonian language documented by the census authority but it is rightly distinguished from Bulgarian and Serbian.

One can now appreciate why the 1920 census results for the “New Territories” have gone missing.

We would like to thank Mr. Dimitrios Lithoksoou for uncovering this data, which we published in Volume 5 of our magazine, Nova Zora (New Dawn). Mr. Lithoksoou has his own Web site with several pages of interest to the Macedonians of Greece.

Macedonian news:

Greek Acts against the Macedonians

July 24, 2007

Greek Acts against the Macedonians

(1912 – 1994)

By Peter Medichkov

The following chronicles the methods employed by Greece in its effort to eradicate the centuries old Macedonian ethnic presence in Aegean Macedonia (Greek Macedonia) in the name of Greek territorial expansion. Specific laws and decrees are presented against the backdrop of relevant historical events affecting Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia.

The chronology begins in 1912 when Greece, for the first time ever, came into possession of Macedonian territory and this by force of arms, almost a decade after the 1903 Ilinden (St. Iliya Day) Uprising lead by the IMRO (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization) in a failed effort to free Macedonia from the Ottoman yoke.

The ominous prophecy of Harilaos Trikoupis, Greek Prime Minister from 1882 to 1895, foretold what the neighboring Greek state had in mind for Macedonia and its people:

“When the Great War comes, Macedonia will become Greek or Bulgarian, according to who wins. If it is taken by the Bulgarians, they will make the population Slavs. If we take it, we will make all of them Greeks”.


1912 Balkan Wars

Irredentist Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro drive a crumbling Ottoman Empire out of the Balkans and pursue territorial expansion into Macedonia. Greek army enters Aegean Macedonia ostensibly to “liberate” Macedonia from the Ottoman.


The Greek, Serbian, Bulgarian alliance breaks down over competing claims for Macedonia. Bulgaria miscalculates and attacks Serbia and Greek armies. Ottoman forces rejoin the war against Bulgaria. Bulgaria defeated, loses territorial gains in Macedonia.

From “liberation to tyranny”, Greek army commences savage and bloody “ethnic cleansing” of the towns of Kukush, Doiran, Demir-Hisar and Serres in the Aegean Macedonia.

160 Macedonian villages burned, and atrocities committed. Mass exodus of refugees.

Treaty of Bucharest (Aug. 10, 1913), ends the War and partitions Macedonia.

Greece refers to conquered Macedonian lands as the “new territories” under “military administration”. Not yet officially incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece.

Military occupation augmented by influx of administrators, educators; police brought from Greece.

Professor R.A. Reiss reports to the Greek government: “Those whom you would call Bulgarian speakers I would simply call Macedonians…Macedonian is not the language they speak in Sofia…I repeat the mass of inhabitants there (Macedonia) remain simply Macedonians.”


LAW 1051 Greece inaugurates new administrative jurisdictions for governing newly acquired lands in Aegean Macedonia.

1919 Treaty of Versailles (Paris)

England and France ratify the principles of the Bucharest Treaty and endorse the partition of Macedonia.

Greece pursues the forced expulsion and denationalization of Macedonians and begins colonization by transfering “Greeks” into Aegean Macedonia.

Article 51 of Treaty of Versailles espouses equality of civil rights, education, language, and religion for all national minorities which Greece violates and ignores.

Neuilly Convention and forced exchange of populations. About 70,000 Macedonians expelled from Aegean Macedonia to Bulgaria and 25,000 Greeks transfered from Bulgaria to Aegean Macedonia.

Greek Commission on Toponyms issues instructions for choosing Hellenized names for Macedonian places in Aegean Macedonia.


Greek Ministry of Internal Affairs publishes booklet: “Advice on the change of the names of municipalities and villages” in Aegean Macedonia.


76 names of Macedonian villages and towns in Aegean Macedonia Greekized since 1918 by Greek authorities.

League of Nations pressures on Greece to extend rights to Macedonian minority.

ABECEDAR Primer printed in Athens for use by Macedonian school children in Aegean Macedonia. Written in Latin alphabet and reflects the Macedonian language spoken in Bitola-Lerin (Florina) district in Western Aegean Macedonia.

Serbs and Bulgarians protest to League of Nations. Primer undermines their claim that Macedonians are Serbs and Bulgarians respectively.

Greece counters with last minute cable to League: “the population…..knows neither the Serbian nor the Bulgarian language and speaks nothing but a Slav-Macedonian idiom.”

Greece “retreats” so as to preserve Balkan alliances. Primer is destroyed after League of Nations delegates leave Salonika (Solun).

Thereafter, Greece denies existence of Macedonians. Refers to Macedonians as “Slavophone Greeks”, “Old Bulgarians” and many other appellations but not as Macedonians.


Legislative Orders in Government Gazette #331 orders Macedonian names of towns, villages, mountains changed to Greek names.


Cyrillic inscriptions ( Macedonian alphabet) in churches, tombstones and icons rewritten or destroyed. Church services in the Macedonian language are outlawed.

Macedonians ordered to abandon personal names and under Duress adopt Greek names assigned to them by the Greek state.


1, 497 Macedonian place names in Aegean Macedonia Greekized since 1926.

English Journalist V. Hild reveals, “The Greeks do not only persecute living Macedonians., but they even persecute dead ones. They do not leave them in peace even in the graves. They erase the Macedonian inscriptions on the headstones, remove the bones and burn them.”


Greek Government enacts law where any demands for national rights for Macedonians are regarded as high treason.

LAW 4096 directive on renaming Macedonian place names.


Reign of terror by fascist dictator General Metaxas, (1936-40). Macedonians suffer state terrorism and pogroms.

Thousands of Macedonians jailed, sent to internal exile (EXORIA) on arid, inhospitable Greek islands, where many perish. Their crime? Being ethnic Macedonian by birth.

LAW 6429 reinforces Law 4096 on Greekization of toponyms (place names).

DECREE 87 accelerates denationalization of Macedonians.

Greek Ministry of Education sends “Specially trained” instructors to accelerate conversion to Greek language.


LAW 23666 bans the use of the Macedonian language and strives to erase every trace of the Macedonian identity.

Macedonians fined, beaten or jailed for speaking Macedonian. Adults and school children further humiliated by being forced to drink castor oil when caught speaking Macedonian.

LAW 1418 reinforces previous laws on renaming.


39 more place-names Greekized since 1929.


LAW 697 more regulations on renaming toponyms in Aegean Macedonia.


LAW L-2 citizens suspected of opposing Greek government in Civil War stripped of their citizenship, including relatives, arbitrarily and without due process.


LAW M properties confiscated from citizens who fought against government and those accused of assisting.

28,000 child refugees, mostly Macedonians, from areas of heavy fighting evacuated to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Greece denies their right of return to this day.

RESOLUTION 193C (III) United Nations Resolution calls for repatriation to Greece of child refugees.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive an impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

DECREE 504 continues property confiscations of exiles and colonization of Aegean Macedonia with people from Turkey, Egypt and other parts of Greece. Parcels of land given to the colonists along with financial incentives.


LAW 3958 allows confiscation of property of those who left Greece and did not return within five years.

Several villages in Aegean Macedonia forced to swear “Language Oaths” to speak only Greek and renounce their mother Macedonian tongue.


DECREE 4234 reinforces past laws regarding confiscated properties of political exiles and denies them right to return.


EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS accuses Greece of human rights abuses.


Council of Europe declares Greece “undemocratic, illiberal, authoritarian, and oppressive”. Greece forced to resign from Council of Europe under threat of expulsion.

Military Junta continues the policy of colonizing the confiscated lands in Aegean Macedonia. Land handled over to persons with a “proven patriotism” for Greece.

European Convention For the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms signed by Greece states: ARTICLE 10(1) “Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers”.


DECREE 233 suspends about 150 past decrees, government decisions and laws since 1913. Regulations for the confiscation of properties belonging to Macedonian political exiles not affected.


135 places renamed in Aegean Macedonia since 1940. The Greek vigil regarding names is an indicator of the Macedonian ethnic identity in Aegean Macedonia.


Greek internal security police urges intensive campaign to wipe out remaining Macedonian language and consciousness in Aegean Macedonia.

LAW 106841 political exiles who fled during the Civil War and were stripped of their citizenship are allowed to return providing they are “Greek by ethnic origin”. The same rights are denied to Macedonian political exiles born in the Aegean Macedonia.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 17, “No one can be deprived of his own property against his will”.


DECREE 1540, Political exiles who fled during Civil War allowed to reclaim confiscated lands provided they are “Greeks by ethnic origin”. Same rights denied to Macedonian exiles born in Aegean Macedonia.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 13, “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, as well as to return to his own country”.


International writers’ organization, PEN, condemns Greece’s denial of the existence of Macedonians and their language.

Greece escalates climate of fear in Aegean Macedonia.

Greece officially calls the Republic of Macedonia as the “Republic of Skopje”, after the name of its capital city; and Macedonians are called “Skopjans”.

The term “Skopjans” used to label Greek citizens who declare themselves as ethnic Macedonians. “Skopjans” laced with hatred, and racism. It connotes a traitor to Hellenism.


CSCE COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN DIMENSION, to which Greece is a signatory, states in ARTICLE 32: “Persons belonging to national minorities have the right freely to express, preserve, and develop their ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious identity and to maintain and develop their culture in all its aspects, free of any attempts as assimilation against their will”. ARTICLE 33: “Participating states will protest the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities…and create conditions for the promotion of that identity”.

GREEK HIGH COURT DECISION 19 refuses registration of “CENTER FOR MACEDONIAN CULTURE” in Florina (Lerin). Appeal is turned down by High Appeals Court in Salonika. Further appeal dismissed by Supreme Administrative Council of Greece in Athens.


CSCE MEETING ON NATIONAL MINORITIES IN GENEVA, in which Greece participated states: “Issues concerning national minorities…are matters of legitimate international concern and consequently do not constitute exclusively an internal affair of the respective State…Participating States reaffirm, and will not hinder the exercise of, the right of persons belonging to national minorities to establish and maintain their own educational, cultural and religious institutions, organizations and associations”.

Belligerent anti-Macedonian propaganda incites Greek population into a state of chauvinistic hysteria.

Translation from Greek: “Hang the Skopje Gypsies”


Greece and Serbia conspire to overthrow and partition the Republic of Macedonia.


Macedonian human rights activists Hristos Sidiropoulos and Tasos Boulis were prosecuted under Greek Panel Code: Article 36, Para 191; disseminating false information; Para 192; inciting citizens to disturb the peace. Their crime? Declaring themselves as Macedonians in an interview for Greek magazine ENA.

Macedonian human rights activist and priest Nikodimos Tsarknias derobed and expelled by Greek Orthodox Church because of his human rights activities. Tsarknias refused a Greek bribe which would have elevated him to bishop in 1989. He received death threats.


Extremists of Australia’s Greek Community burn two Macedonian churches, after Australian recognition of Macedonia.

Greece continues to deny the existence of Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

Greece continues repressive and unrelenting policies against Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia despite objections by international human rights organizations.

Macedonian village names

July 23, 2007

occupied by Greece in 1912, that have forcedly been changed from 1926 and forward.
Submitted by Lena Jankovski and Alex Bakratcheff

Following the 1913 Treatry of Bucharest, the Macedonian place names that existed were gradually changed to Greek named, this included people’s family and given names, and was called Hellenization.
1927 Greek Government Legislative Edict
The Greek Government Gazette declared that “there are not any non-Greek people in Greece”. This was part of a process whereby all the names of Macedonian villages, towns, regions, etc. were changed, together with the surnames of ethnic Macedonians, into Greek versions.
1934-1941 Military Dictatorship in Greece
At its height, the Facists regime prohibits the speaking of Macedonian.

MACEDONIAN NAME (District) Greek changed name
————————– ————————-

Agova mahala (Ser) Adelfikon
Ahil (Kostur) Agios Ahileos
Aivatovo (Solun) Liti
Ajtos Lerin) Aetos
Akandzhaly (Kukush) Muries
Alchak (Kukush) Hamilon
Alistrat (Ser) Alistrati
Apidija (Ser)
Aposkep (Kostur) Aposkepos
Arapli (Solun) Lehanokipos
Armensko (Lerin) Alonas
Arsen (Voden) Poliplatanon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Babakjoj (Kukush) Mesja
Babchor (Kostur) Pimenikon
Baldzha (Solun) Melisohorion
Banitza (Lerin) Vevi
Banitza (Ser) Karie
Barakli Dzhumaja (Ser) Valteron
Barovitza (Kukush) Kastaneri
Bejlik mahale (Ser) Valtotopi
Bela Tzarkva (Kostur)
Bel Kamen (Lerin) Drosopigi
Belotintzi (Drama) Levkoija
Ber (Solun) Veria (Imatja)
Berishcha Ptelea
Besvina (Kostur) Sfika
Biraltzi (Kozhany) Perdikas
Bitushe Parorion
Bizovo Megaloplatanos
Blatza (Kostur) Oksies
Blatze Ahladia
Bobishcha (Kostur) Vergas
Boevo Katsanovo
Bogatsko (Kostur) Agios Nikolaos
Bojmitza (Kukush) Aksiupolis
Boreshnitza Palestra
Boriany Agios Atanasios
Borislav Periklia
Borovo Potami
Bostandzievtzi (Kostur)
Bozhetz (Voden) Atiras
Brest (Kukush) Akrolimnion
Breshcheny (Kostur) Kria Nera
Breznitza (Kostur) Vatohorion
Bruhovo Kokina Egri
Buf Akrita
Buf (Lerin) Bufi
Bugarievo (Solum) Karavias
Buk Paranestion
Bukovik (Kostur) Oksia
Bulamasli Akakies
Bultishta Profitis Ilias
Bumboki (Kostur) Makrohori
Butkovo Kerkini
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Chavdar Psomotopi
Chegan (Lerin) Meteora
Chegan (Voden) Agios Atanasios
Chekri (Voden) Paralimni
Cherepljan (Ser) Tserepljani
Chereshnitza (Kostur) Polikerason
Chereshovo (Drama) Tisavros
Chereshovo Pagoneri
Cherkezkjoi (Lerin) Limnohori
Cherkovian Klidohor
Cherna reka (Kukush) Karpi
Chernak Strotis
Chernova Fitia
Chernovishcha (Kostur) Mavrokampos
Chetirok (Kostur) Mesopotamja
Chichigaz (Voden) Stavrodromi
Chiflik(Radogozhe)(Kostur) Triha
Chirpishcha (Ser) Terpni
Chor (Kozhany) Galatija
Chuchuligovo (Ser) Anagenizis
Chuguntzi (Kukush) Megali Sterna
Chuka (Kostur) Puka
Churilovo (Kostur) Tsirilovon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Dabovo (Kukush) Valtotopi
Dambeni (Kostur) Dendrohori
Darovo Kehrokampos
Dautli (Kukush) Ambelohori
Debretz (Kozhany) Anarahi
Demir Hisar (Ser) Sidirokastron (Sintiki)
Dere Kalitea
Dervent Akritodohori
Dobrolishcha (Kostur) Kalohori
Doksat (Drama) Doksaton
Doleny (Kostur) Zevgostasi
Dolni Poroj (Ser) Kato Poroja
Dolno Drenoveny (Kostur) Kato Kranionas
Dolno Garbali Kato Surmena
Dolno Kalenik (Lerin) Kato Kaleniki
Dolno Kleshtino Kato Klene
Dolno Kotori (Lerin) Kato Idrusa
Dolno Krushevo (Ser) Kato Kerdilion
Dolno Kufalovo (Solun) Kufalja
Dolno Nevoljani (Lerin) Valtonera
Dolno Papratsko (Kostur) Kato Fterias
Dolno Rodivo Kato Korifi
Dovishta (Ser) Papas Emanuil
Drachevo Levkotea
Dragomantzi Apsalos
Dragomir Vapsiohori
Dragosh Zevgolatio
Dragotin (Ser) Promahon
Dramendzhik Drakontion
Dranich Antifilipi
Dranichevo (Kostur)
Dravunishta Geraki
Dremiglava Drimos
Drenichevo (Kostur) Kranohori
Drenoveny (Kostur) Kranionas
Drenovo (Kostur) Glikoneri
Drenovo (Ser) Dranovan
Drenovo Monastiraki
Dreveno Pili
Drobishcha (Kostur) Daseri
Druska Drosia
Dudular (Solun) Djavata
Dupjak (Kostur) Dispilion
Durbanli (Kukush) Sinoron
Durdanli (Kukush) Patohori
Durgutli Nigdi
Dutli Eleon
Dzhuma (Kozhany) Amigdala
Dzuma Migdala
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Egri Dere (Drama) Kalitea
Ehatli Kavalaris
Ekshi-su (Lerin) Ksino Nero
Eleovo (Kostur) Lakia
Eleshnitza (Ser) Fea Pitra
Elshen (Ser) Karperi
Embore (Kozhany) Enborion
Enidzhe-Vardar (Voden) Janitza
Enikjoi (Ser) Provatas
Ezeretz (Kostur) Petropulaki
Ezhovo (Ser) Dafni
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Fetishcha Pola Nera
Fotinishcha (Kostur) Fotini
Fotovishcha Valtohoro
Frankovitza Ermakia
Futzeli Semeli
Fustani Evropos
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Gabresh (Kostur) Gavros
Galishcha (Kostur) Omorfoklisia
Garbasel Kastanies
Gariptzi Hloronomos
Garleni (Kostur) Hionaton
Gaskarla Kalohori
Gavalantsi (Kukush) Valtudi
Gavrishcha Dorotea
Gedi-Dermen Eptomili
Georgolik (Kukush) Gorgopi
Gerakartzi (Kukush) Gerakonos
German (Ser) Shistolitos
Gevsekli Rematia
Gjulobasi Pikrolimni
Gjumendzhe (Kukush) Gumenitza (Peonija)
Gjumenich Stiva
Gjundzheli Vamvakuza
Gjupchevo Gipsohori
Gjuredzhik (Drama) Granitis
Gjuvezna Asiros
Globoshchitza Kalohorio
Gola Korifes
Golem Besik Megali Volvi
Golem Sevidrik Megalokampos
Golema Livada (Voden) Megala Livadija
Golishani (Voden) Levkadia
Golo selo (Voden) Gimna
Gorentzi (Kostur) Korisos
Gorjantzi (Drama)
Gorna Nushka Ano Dafnudi
Gorni Kotor (Lerin) Ano Idrusa
Gorni Metoh (Ser)
Gorni Poroj (Ser) Ano Poroja
Gorni Postular Ano Apostoli
Gornitza Kalivrisi
Gornichevo (Lerin) Keli
Gorno Brodi (Ser) Ano Vrondu
Gorno Drenoveny (Kostur) Ano Kranionas
Gorno Garbali Ano Surmena
Gorno Karadzhovo (Ser) Monoklisia
Gorno Klestino Ano Klene
Gorno Krushare Ekso Asladohori
Gorno Krushovo (Ser) Ano Kerdilion
Gorno Kufalovo (Solun) Kuflja
Gorno Kumanichevo (Kostur)
Gorno Nevoljani (Lerin) Skopja
Gorno Papratsko (Kostur) Ano Fterias
Gorno Pozharsko (Voden) Ano Lutraki
Gorno Rodivo (Voden) Ano Korifi
Gorno Selo Ano Vermion
Gosno (Kostur)
Govlishta Krokos
Gradishte Kiros
Gradobor (Solun) Gradeboin
Gradobor Nikopolis
Grache (Kostur) Ftelia
Gramos (Kostur) Gramos
Granichevo Krioneri
Grazhden Vronteron
Grazhdino (Kostur) Vronderon
Gropino Voltolivado
Gugovo (Voden) Viritja
Gulintzi (Lerin) Rodonas
Gurbesh Agriosikia
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Hadzhi-bejlik Vironia
Hadzhi-bajramli Teodosia
Hadzhik Filiros
Hajderli (Kozhany) Klitos
Harava Polikilon
Harbino (Kozhany) Ftelionas
Harman-kjoi Stadmos
Harsovo Herson
Hasanovo (Lerin) Mesohori
Haznatar Hrizohorafa
Hedzik Fikiros
Hodzhovo Karidia
Holeva Amision
Homandos (Ser)
Hristos (Ser) Hristos
Hrupishcha (Kostur) Argos Orestikon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Ilezli Inoi
Ilidzhievo (Solun)
Indzes Eratni
Ineli (Kozhany) Anatolikon
Ineovo Avrini
Ishirli Platanotopos
Istrane Perasma
Izbishcha (Drama) Agriokerasia
Izglibe (Kostur) Poria
Izvor (Kukush) Pigi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Jadzilar Ksilokeratia
Janchishcha (Solun) Janisa
Janes Metaliko
Janikia Askos
Janovene (Kostur) Janohori
Janozli Karpofonom
Jaramzli Ajdonia
Javor Diamezon
Javoreny (Voden) Platani
Javornitza Nea Kuklina
Juklemes (Kozhany) Farangi
Jundzhular Kimina
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Kabasnitza (Lerin) Proti
Kadinovo (Voden) Galatas
Kajachaly Triadi
Kajali Vrahia
Kajljari (Kozhany) Ptolemajs (Eordeja)
Kalapot (Drama) Paleon Kalapoti
Kalenik (Lerin)
Kalevishcha (Kostur) Kali Vrisi
Kalinovo (Kukush) Sutojaneika
Kaljany Eani
Kamareto (Ser) Kamaroti
Kamenik Petrias
Kamila (Ser) Ano Kamili
Kandza Aniksia
Kapinjany Eksaplatanos
Kara-bej Karna
Kara-bunar (Kukush) Mavroneri
Kara-bunar (Solun) Angelofrori
Kara-bunar (Kozhany) Mavropigi
Kara-Chali (Solun) Mavrodendri
Kara-Chali (Drama) Mavrovatos
Kara-Chali (Ser) Kaliroj
Kara-chukali Kardia
Karadzha Evangelizmos
Karadzha-kjoi (Solun) Kartera
Karadzha-kjoi (Drama) Tolos
Karadzhova Elafohori
Karagatz Mavrodendri
Kara-ilar Drepanon
Kara-kjoj Kalegiri
Kara-kjoj (Drama) Katafiton
Kara-mahala Koronia
Karamanli Agios Kozmos
Karandzhilari Zarkadia
Kara-sule (Kukush) Polikastron
Kara-tepe Mavrolofos
Karchishta Polianemon
Karchovo Koridohori
Kardzhalar Adendron
Karilova Zardadion
Karladovo Milias
Karlakovo Mikropolis
Karli-kjoi (Ser) Hionohoron
Karpeny (Kostur)
Katranitza (Kozhany) Pirgi
Katun Dipotama
Kavadzhik Levkadi
Kavakli (Drama) Egiros
Kavakli (Kukush) Perintos
Kavakli (Ser) Levkonas
Kazanovo Kotili
Kesedzhi Chiflik (Ser) Sidirohorion
Kiklova Kastanies
Kirech-kjoi (Solun) Azevstohorion
Kjospekli (Ser) Skutari
Klabuchishta Poliplatanos
Kladorobi (Lerin) Kladorahi
Klepushna (Ser) Agriani
Klishali Prositis
Klisura (Kostur) Klisura
Kobalishte (Drama) Kokinoja
Kochan Rizana
Kochana Perea
Kochany Kostani
Kokova Polidendri
Kolaritza Manjaki
Kolibi (Kukush) Skinite
Komarjan Kimaria
Komen (Kozhany) Komanos
Kondorbi (Kostur)
Konitza Pevki
Konikovo Stiba
Konomlady (Kostur) Makrohori
Konsko Talakini
Konuj (Kozhany) Elos
Korchak Mirini
Koriten (Kukush) Ksirohori
Kormishta (Ser) Kormista
Kornishor (Voden) Kromni
Kosinetz (Kostur) Jeropigi
Kosinovo Polipetron
Kosturadzhe (Kostur) Ksifonia
Kozhusany Filotia
Kozlukjoi (Kozhany) Kariohori
Kramtza Mezovunos
Kranishta Dendrari
Krastali Korona
Krechovo Agios Jorgios
Krepeshino (Lerin) Atrapos
Kriva (Kukush) Grivas
Krontzelevo (Voden) Kerasies
Krushari Ampelies
Krushoradi (Lerin) Ahlada
Krushovo (Ser) Ahladohorion
Kuchkari Galini
Kuchkoveny (Lerin) Perazma
Kula Paleokastron
Kulakija Halastra
Kumanich (Drama) Dasaton
Kumanichevo (Kostur) Litia
Kumli (Ser) Amudja
Kurchishcha (Kostur) Polianemon
Kurchovo (Ser) Karidohori (Liebra)
Kushinovo (Kukush) Polipetron
Kushovo Kokina
Kutlesh Vergina
Kula Paleokastron
Kutuger Halastra
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Labanitza (Kostur) Agios Dimitrios
Ladza Terma
Lanki Mikrolimni
Lagino (Lerin) Triandafilia
Lagadina (Solun) Litokastron (Langadas)
Lakavigtza Mikromilia
Langa (Kozhany) Milohori
Latrovo Hortero
Lazheny (Lerin) Mesonisi
Lebishevo (Kostur) Aila
Lehovo (Ser) Krasohori
Lelovo (Kukush) Agios Antonios
Lembed Evkarpia
Leskovetz (Lerin) Leptokaries
Leskovo Tria Elata
Lestan Farasinon
Leveny Vasiludi
Liban Skaloti
Libanovo Eginion
Libjahovo (Drama)
Lichishta (Kostur) Polikarpos
Likovan Ksilopolis
Likovishta Likojani
Lipintzi (Kozhany) Azvestopetra
Lipush (Ser) Filira
Lise Ohiron
Ljubetino (Lerin) Pedinon
Ljumnitza Skra
Loshnitza (Kostur) Germas
Lovcha (Drama) Kalikarpon
Lovcha (Ser) Akrohori
Lozanovo Palefiton
Lozitza Mezolofos
Ludovo (Kostur) Kria Nera
Luguntzi (Voden) Langadia
Lukovich Sotira
Lunki (Kostur) Mikro Limno
Luvrade (Kostur) Skieron
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Machukovo (Kukush) Evzoni
Mahala (Lerin) Tropeuhos
Mahaledzik Milorema
Malak Besik Mikra Volvi
Malesh (Ser) Vamvakja
Malko-Osmanli Kosmiti
Malovtzi Hilioluston
Mangila (Mogila) (Kostur) Ano Perivoli
Manjak (Kostur) Manjaki
Marchishcha (Kostur) Kato Perivoli
Markoveny (Kostur) Markohori
Mavrovo (Solun) Mavruda
Mavrovo (Kostur) Mavrohori
Mech Mezi
Medovo (Kostur) Milionas
Melnikich (Ser) Melenikitzion
Menteseli Eli
Mentesli Moshuia
Merjan Ligaria
Mertatevo Ksirotopos
Mesely Drias
Mesimer (Voden) Mesimeri
Mezdurek Melisurgio
Mijalovo (Kukush) Mihalitzi
Milovo Megali Gefira
Mirovo Eliniko
Mokreny (Kostur) Variko
Mokro Polikrinos
Morafca Antigonia
Morartzi (Kukush)
Mramor Kapetanudi
Mrsna Gonimon
Munchino Lekani
Munuhy Mavrotalasa
Muralar Pelagros
Muralti Skopos
Murodonli Mirovliton
Mursali Monokaridia
Musacali Aetofolia
Muselim Aedonokastron
Muska Kudunia
Mutulovo Metaksohori
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Negochany Niri
Negovan (Lerin) Flamburion
Negush Nausa
Nered (Lerin) Polipotamon
Nesram (Nestram)(Kostur) Nestorion
Nestime (Kostur) Nastimon
Neukazy (Lerin) Neohoraki
Neveska (Lerin) Nimfeon
Nevoleny (Lerin) Skopia
Nevoleny Vamvaria
Nigoslav Nikoklia
Nigrita (Ser) Nigrita (Visaltija)
Nisia (Voden) Nision
Nivitza (Kostur) Psarades
Novi Grad (Lerin) Ve Gora
Novoseltzi Joromilos
Novo Selo (Kostur) Korfula
Novo Selo (Solun) Nehorion
Novo Selo (Solun) Neohoruda
Novoseljany (Kostur) Nea Komi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Obor Aravizos
Obsirena Etnikon
Oktzilar Toksote
Oladzhak Platamon
Olishcha (Kostur) Melisotopos
Omotzko (Kostur) Livadotopos
Opaja (Kostur) Opaja
Orchovitza Pevkodazos
Organdzhi (Drama) Organzi
Organdzilar Sapeon
Orizartzi (Kukush) Rizia
Orizari (Voden) Rizarion (Rizo)
Orljak (Ser) Strimonikon
Orman (Kostur) Kato-Levki
Ormanli (Drama) Polikarpos
Ormanli (Ser) Dasohori
Ormanovo Dasero
Orovnik (Kostur) Karie
Orovo (Kostur) Piksos
Osheny (Kostur) Inoi
Oshchima (Kostur) Trigonon
Osin Argangelos
Osljani Agios Fotini
Oslovo Panagitza
Osmanitza Kalos Agros
Osmanli (Pravishta) Hrisokastron
Osmanli (Haldiki) Neromilos
Osnichani (Kostur) Kastanofiton
Ostitza Mikromilia
Ostima Trigonon
Ostrovo (Voden) Arnisa
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Palior (Kozhany) Fufa
Palmes Kastanusa
Papdia (Lerin) Papagja
Papli (Kostur) Levkonas
Paprat Pontokerasia
Pastrovo Kalikrunon
Patele (Lerin) Agios Panteleimon
Patele Pontokerasia
Patichino Patima
Pataros (Kukush) Drosaton
Pazarlar Agora
Pazarli (Haldiki) Dikorfon
Pazarli (Kukush) Melansion
Pejkovo Agios Markoc
Pejzanovo (Solun) Azevstohorion
Pelkati Monopili
Pernovali Agia Ekaterini
Pesjak (Kostur) Amudara
Pesochnitza (Lerin) Amohorion
Petersko (Lerin) Petras
Petgas (Kukush) Pentalofos
Petoritza Hrizohori
Petrovo (Kukush) Agios Petros
Pilkadi (Kostur) Monopilon
Pilorik (Voden) Pilorigi
Piskopija (Voden) Episkopi
Pisoder (Kostur) Pisoderion
Planitza Fiska
Plashnichevo Kria Vrisi
Pleshevitza (Lerin) Kolhiki
Plevna (Drama) Petrusa
Plugar (Voden) Ludias
Pochep (Voden) Margarita
Pod (Voden) Podos
Podgorjany Podohorion
Poljany Polikarpi
Ponor (Kozhany)
Popli (Lerin) Lefkonas
Popolzhany (Lerin) Papajanis
Popovo (Kukush) Miriofiton
Porna Gazoros
Postol (Voden) Pela (Agio Apostoli)
Potores Agia Kiriaki
Pozdivishcha (Kostur) Halara
Pozhari (Solun) Kefalohori
Prahna Aspro
Pravishte (Kavala) Elefteropolis (Pamgeon)
Prebadishte Sosandra
Prekopana (Kostur)
Prekopana (Lerin) Perikopi
Presechen (Drama) Protzani
Pribojna Vunohoron
Prosenik (Ser) Skotusa
Prosochen Pirsopolis
Provishta Palekomi
Pselsko Kipseli
Psore (Kostur) Ipsilon
Puljovo Termopigi
Purlida Konhilia
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Radigoze Agia Ana
Radomir (Kukush) Asvestario
Radovishta Rodjani
Radovo Haropo
Radunishta (Kozhany) Krio Vrisi
Ragjan Vati
Rahmanli (Kukush) Antigoni
Rahmanli (Lerin) Eleuza
Rahmanli (Kozhany) Galina
Rahovitza Marmaras
Rahovo (Solun) Rahia
Rahovo (Drama) Mezorahi
Rajkovche (Ser) Kapnotopos
Rakistan Katahloron
Rakita (Kozhany) Olimpias
Radovo Krateron
Ramel Rahona
Ramna (Kukush) Monoliti
Ramna (Voden) Omalon
Ramna (Kozhany) Omalon
Ranislav Agati
Rantzi (Kozhany) Ermakja
Rapes Drepani
Rasovo Limon
Ravenia Makriplagi
Ravitza Kalifiton
Ravna (Ser) Isoma
Razenik Haradra
Rehimli Mezia
Resen Sitaria
Resilovo Haritomeni
Retini Riakon
Revany (Kostur) Dipotamja
Rizovo Rizo
Rjamentzi (Ser)
Robovo Rodonas
Rudari (Kostur) Ekalitea
Rudino Aloras
Rulja (Kostur) Katohori
Rumbi Lemos
Rum-Saret Vromosiria
Rupel (Ser) Klidion
Rupishcha (Kostur)
Rusinovo (Drama) Ksantogia
Rusovo Makroliti
Ruzheny Rizohori
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Sabotsko (Voden) Ardeja (Almopija)
Sachishcha (Kozhany) Sjatista
Sadina Karavi
Sakaftza Evadohori
Sakulevo Marina
Salamanli Galikos
Salpovo (Kozhany) Ardasa
Samar (Voden) Samari
Samokovo Domatia
Saratzi Falara
Saradza Valtohori
Saraj Sholarion
Sarajli Palatianon
Sarakinovo (Lerin) Sarakini
Sara-pazar (Kukush) Antofiton
Sarashaban Hrisopolis
Sari-gjol (Kukush) Kriston
Sarmusakli (Ser) Pendapolis
Sarmusalari Kokinohori
Savek (Ser) Vamvakofiton
Sborsko (Voden) Revkoton
Sehovo (Kukush) Idomeni
Seljany Mezorena
Semasi (Kostur) Kremaston
Sendelchevo Sandali
Seneleli Rodokipos
Seremeti Fanarion
Serermli Kserovrisi
Seslovo (Kukush) Sevaston
Setina (Lerin) Skopos
Setoma (Kostur) Kefalari
Sevendekli Eptalofon
Severjany Vorino
Sfiltzi Hromion
Shakovitza (Kostur)
Shekerki (Kukush) Zaharaton
Sheshtevo (Kostur) Sidirohori
Shilinos (Ser) Sfelinos
Shijak (Kostur) Komninades
Shkrapar (Kostur)
Shlimnishcha (Kostur) Milica
Shljopintsi (Kukush) Dogani
Shtarkovo (Kostur) Plati
Sicevo Sidirohori
Siderova Mezovuni
Singelevo (Ser)
Sivry Nea Mahala
Skrizhevo (Ser) Skopia
Slatina (Kostur) Hrisi
Slatina (Voden) Hrisi
Sliveny (Kostur) Koromilia
Smol (Kukush) Mikron Dasos
Smurdesh (Kostur) Kristalopigi
Snicheny (Kostur)
Sokol (Ser) Sikja
Sokolovo Parapotomos
Sosuri Nimfi
Spantzi (Lerin) Fanos
Spantzi (Kukush) Latomi
Spatjovo (Ser) Kimesis
Spirlitovo Plagiari
Sporlita Elefina
Srebreny (Lerin) Asproija
Starchishta (Drama) Peritorion
Starichany (Kostur) Lakomata
Statitza (Kostur) Melas
Stavros (Solun) Stavros
Stavrovo Stavrodromi
Stensko (Kostur) Stena
Straishta Ida
Strezovo (Kukush) Argirupolis
Strupino Likostomon
Subas-Kjoj Neon Suli
Sufilar (Halkidiki) Angelohori
Sufilar (Kavala) Angelohori
Suha-banja (Tashino ezero) Paliotros
Suha-banja (Ser) Ksilotros
Suho (Solun) Sohos
Sujudzuk Lima
Sulovo Amaranta
Surlevo (Kukush) Amaranda
Surovichevo (Lerin) Amindeon
Sveta Marina (Ber) Agia Marina
Sveta Nedelja (Kostur) Agia Kiriaki
Sveta Petka (Lerin) Agia Paraskevi
Sveti Atanas (Drama) Agios Atanasios
Sveti Ilija (Voden) Profitis Ilias
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Tagramishevo Idromilos
Tarlis (Drama) Vatitopos
Tarlis Sidirohori
Tarnaa (Kostur)
Tarnovo (Kostur) Ankatoton
Tarsje (Kostur) Trivunon
Tehovo (Voden) Karadjas
Tekelievo (Solun) Sindos
Tekri Paralimni
Tekri-Vermisly Kserorevma
Telkili Petralona
Tikisli Talasia
Tikveny (Kostur) Kalokinton
Tiolishcha (Kostur) Tihion
Todorak (Kukush)
Tohova Palionelines
Toilar Peristeri
Toma Avgo
Toptzi Gefira
Topchilar Agios Dimitrios
Topljany Jorgjani
Topola Kiriaki
Topoljan (Ser) Hrisos
Topchievo (Solun) Gerifa
Topolovo Nea Tiroloi
Tranka (Ser) Damaskinon
Trebeno (Kozhany) Kardja
Treboletz Tripolis
Trepishcha (Kozhany) Agios Hristoforos
Tresino (Voden) Ormai
Trifulchevo Trifili
Trihovishcha Kamiohori
Tuhol (Kostur) Pevkos
Tukovo Leptokaria
Tumba (Ser) Neos Skopos
Tumba (Kukush) Tumba
Tumba Emvolos
Turbesh (Ser) Makriotisa
Turcheli Trakiko
Tukitza Trias
Turje (Kostur) Korifi
Turmanli Rodonia
Tursko selo Milopotamos
Tushilovo (Kukush) Statis
Tusin (Voden) Aetohiri
Tzakoni (Kostur)
Tzarmarinovo (Voden) Marina
Tzarvishta (Ser) Kapnofiton
Tzerovo (Lerin) Klidi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Udzhana (Kozhany) Komninon
Ugurli Peristereon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Vadrishta (Kukush) Kambohorion
Vadrishta (Voden) Palea Milotopos
Vadrishta Milotopos
Valchshta Domeron
Valgatzi (Kukush) Kambohorion
Valkojanovo (Voden) Liki
Valkovo Hrisokefolos
Vambel (Kostur) Mosohori
Varbeny (Lerin) Itja
Varbnik (Kostur)
Varlankza Agroniri
Vartokop (Voden) Skidra
Vartolom Agios Vartolomeos
Vardarovtzi Aksiohori
Vardino Limnotopos
Vates Nea Epivate
Vatilak (Solun) Vatilakon
Vazheny Sevastia
Vazme (Drama) Eksohori
Veldziler Dimaros
Velishti Levkopigi
Verzhjany Kato Psihiko
Vetrina Neo Petrici
Veshtitza (Solun) Angelohorion
Veznik (Ser) Monikon
Vidulushche (Kostur)
Vichishcha (Kostur)
Vineny (Kostur) Pili
Virlan Anavrito
Vishen (Ser) Visjani
Visheny (Kostur) Vissinia
Visochan Ksiropotamos
Visoka Osa
Vitachishta (Ser) Vitasta
Vitan (Kostur) Votani
Vitivjany Polifiton
Vitovo Delta
Vladikovo Oropedion
Vladovo (Voden) Agras
Vojvodina (Kozhany) Spilia
Volak (Drama) Volaks
Volchishta (Ser) Domiros
Volchishta Idoea
Volovot Nea Santa
Voronos Kikomidinon
Vosova Sfikia
Voshtarany (Lerin) Meliti
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Zabardeny (Kostur) Melantion
Zabardeny (Lerin) Lofi
Zagoricheny (Kostur) Vasilias
Zahartzi Tagarades
Zarnovo (Drama) Kato Nevrokopion
Zarovo (Solun) Nikopolis
Zdraltza (Kostur) Ampelokipi
Zdravik Draviskos
Zeleniche (Lerin) Sklitron
Zhelegozhe (Kostur) Pentavrison
Zhelevo (Kostur) Andartikon
Zhelin (Kostur) Heliodendron
Zhensko (Kukush) Ginekokastron
Zherveny (Kostur) Agios Antonios
Zhupanishcha (Kostur) Anolevki
Zhuzheltzy (Kostur) Spilea
Ziljahovo Nea Zihni
Ziljahovo (Ser) Filidos
Zimbjul mahala Pevkolofos
Zorbatovo (Solun) Mikro Monastiri
Zulitza Spitea

Macedonia – In all international languages!

July 20, 2007
eng / ast / cym / glg / ina / ita / lat / lld / pol / roh / ron / spa: Macedonia
bre / fin / jav / kal / nor / sme: Makedonia
afr / lim / nld: Macedonië
cat / oci / srd: Macedònia
hrv / lit / slv: Makedonija
arg / eus: Mazedonia
dan / swe: Makedonien
fra / jnf: Macédoine
kaa / uzb: Makedoniya / Македония
kur / zzz: Makedonya / ماکه‌دۆنیا
aze: Makedoniya / Македонија
bam: Maseduwani
bos: Makedonija / Македонија
ces: Makedonie; Macedonie
csb: Macedonijô; Macedońskô
deu: Mazedonien / Mazedonien; Makedonien / Makedonien
dje: Masidoniya
dsb: Makedońska
epo: Makedonujo; Makedonio
est: Makedoonia
fao: Makedónia
fry: Masedoanje
fur: Macedonie
gla: Macadòinia; Masadonia
gle: An Mhacadóine / An Ṁacadóine
glv: Yn Vasseydoan
hat: Masedwan; Masedoni
hsb: Makedonska
hun: Macedónia
ibo: Masedọnia
ind: Makedonia / ماكيدونيا
isl: Makedónía
kmr: Makêdonî / Македони / ماکێدۆنی
lav: Maķedonija
ltz: Mazedonien / Mazedonien
mlg: Makedônia
mlt: Maċedonja
mol: Macedonia / Мачедония
mos: Masedoan
mri: Maketōnia; Makerōnia
msa: Macedonia / ماسيدونيا
nbl: iMakhedoniya
nds: Makedonien / Makedonien
nrm: Basse-Macédouène
por: Macedónia / Macedônia
que: Masidunya
rmy: Makedoniya / माकेदोनिया
rup: Machedonia
scn: Macidonia
slk: Macedónsko
som: Makadooniya
sqi: Maqedonia
srd: Makedònia
swa: Macedonia; Makedonia
tat: Makedoniä / Македония
tet: Masedónia
ton: Masitōnia
tsn: Maketonia
tuk: Makedoniýa / Македония
tur: Makedonya
vie: Ma-xê-đô-ni-a
vol: Makedonän
vor: Makõdoonia
wln: Macedoneye
wol: Masedwaan
xho: iMakedoni
zul: iMakedoniya
got:  (Makidonja)
chu: Македонія (Makedonīja)
abq / alt / bak / bul / kaz / kir / kjh / kom / krc / kum / rus / tyv / udm: Македония (Makedonija)
che / chv / oss: Македони (Makedoni)
bel: Македонія / Makiedonija
chm: Македоний (Makedonij)
kbd: Македоние (Makedonie)
mkd: Македонија (Makedonija)
mon: Македон (Makedon)
srp: Македонија / Makedonija
tgk: Мақдуния (Maqdunija) / مقدونیه (Maqdūniyâ)
ukr: Македонія (Makedonija)
ara: مقدونيا (Maqdūniyā); مكدونيا (Makdūniyā)
fas: مقدونیه (Maqdūnīye); مکادونیه (Makādūnīye)
kab: ماسيدونيا / Masidunya
prs: مقدونیا (Maqedūniyā)
pus: مکدونيا (Makədoniyā); مقدونيا (Maqədoniyā)
uig: ماكېدونىيە / Makédoniye
urd: میسیڈونیا (Mæseḋoniyā); مقدونیہ (Maqdūniyâ)
div: މެސިޑޯނިއާ (Mesiḋōni’ā)
arc: ܡܩܕܘܢܝܐ (Maqdūnyā)
heb: מקדוניה (Maqdônyah)
lad: מאסידוניה / Masedonia
yid: מאַקעדאָניע (Makedonye)
ell: Μακεδονία (Makedonía)
hye: Մակեդոնիա (Makedonia)
kat: მაკედონია (Makedonia)
hin: मैसेडोनिया (Mæseḍoniyā); मखदूनिया (Makʰdūniyā)
nep: म्यासेडोनिया (Mæseḍoniyā)
ben: মেসিডোনিয়া (Mesiḍoniyā)
pan: ਮੈਕਡੋਨੀਆ (Mækḍonīā)
kan: ಮೆಸಡೋನಿಯ (Mesaḍōniya)
mal: മസിഡോണിയ (Masiḍōṇiya)
tam: மசிடோனியா (Mačiṭōṉiyā)
zho: 馬其頓 / 马其顿 (Mǎqídùn)
jpn: マケドニア (Makedonia)
kor: 마케도니아 (Makedonia)
tha: มาซิโดเนีย (Māsidōniya)
khm: ម៉ាសេដូនី (Māsedūnī)
mya: မက္‌စီဒုိးနီယား (Meʿsidòniyà)

Hellenism – Invented in the XIX Century???

July 14, 2007

“We are all Greeks,” said Percy Shelley. While historians may question whether, in the idealized cultural vision of Shelley’s day, even the Greeks were ever really Greeks, the poet nevertheless expresses a powerful conceit, and one that provides an important context for the subject of Max Bruch’s oratorio.

That modern civilization considers many of its greatest achievements to be refinements of classical culture is evident in the markers of historical continuity that surround us still–the architecture of educational and governmental institutions, the language of medicine, the use of myths like Oedipus through which we explain ourselves. Indeed, our reverence for Greek accomplishment is so embedded in our current experience and education, that we might easily forget that the idea of Greece as the birthplace of civilization is really only about two hundred years old. The notion was developed through the course of the nineteenth century, when circumstances in Europe determined the need for an appropriate history and genealogy.

This is not to say that classical culture was not always a fertile imaginative archetype in European thought. Aristotelian philosophy dominated the Roman Church for centuries, and when Europe discovered classical art and literature already known to the Arabs, it sparked a movement known as the Renaissance. An education in ancient literatures and languages was standard for the princes of Europe throughout the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries, and shortly after that, the Baroque era was ushered in by the so-called “neoclassicists,” who believed their historical mission to be the reinvention in orderly fashion of the best social and artistic elements of the ancient world.

But it was not until after the French Revolution effectively ended the Baroque era that an eruption occurred–sometimes referred to as “Hellenomania–when the shade of Greece began to materialize into its present embodiment as cultural fountainhead. At this point, just when Europeans were anxiously pondering their future, a series of events occurred that inflamed their imaginations about their genealogical past.

Not the least of these were the advancements made in the understanding of Greek philology and art. For the first time, linguists were able to clarify the relation of ancient Greek to modern European languages. This was particularly interesting to the Germans, who immediately noticed specific similarities between Greek and their own language. Earlier, the sculptor Johann Joachim Winckelmann, influenced by the English Lord Shaftesbury, had written an influential treatise reevaluating Greek art, Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture, which was followed by a famous essay of his student, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, entitled Laocon. Additionally, in 1807, Lord Elgin brought the friezes of the Parthenon to England, where multitudes of Europeans marveled at them. And, as interest mounted in this ancient culture, the Greek War of Independence broke out in 1821, striking a blow for the ancients against the “degenerative influence” of the “Orientals.”

It should not surprise us that the first important thinkers to embrace the new Hellenism were the German and English Romantics. We are sometimes prone to think that, in their rejection of the works of the previous age, which they saw as mired in slavish adulation of the classics, the Romantics rejected classicism in favor of nature. But it is far more accurate to say that they rejected the Latinate imitations of eighteenth-century artists as a corruption of Greek principles. For them, the recovery of Greek culture unadorned with Augustan frills was firmly associated with a sloughing off of the old ways–the initial optimism of revolutionary times.

The shift from Roman reason to Greek sentiment is reflected in the shifting attitudes toward the perceived father of Greek literature, Homer. Pope translated Homer’s epics, but considered Virgil and Horace far superior to the crude Greek. Goethe, however, declared Homer his favorite author, and while touring classical sites, contemplated (but never wrote) a play about Odysseus. Keats’s admiration for Homer and the Greeks is evident throughout his work, including two of his most famous poems, “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” and “Ode on a Grecian Urn.” Shelley planned to travel to the land of Homer but was prevented by his untimely death. Byron did travel there, and met his own untimely death on his way to fight for the Greeks.

For the Romantics, then, Greek culture symbolized beauty, liberty, and republicanism. As a symbol, Greece did not impart such notions as much as become invested with them by nineteenth-century thinkers. Ancient Greece, in other words, was appropriated and variously interpreted to serve contemporary ends.

This is apparent in what happened to the image of the Greeks later in the century. Disillusionment with the French Revolution by no means lessened the Europeans’ fervor for all things Greek. Instead, Europe merely refashioned the Greeks to suit the changing times. For the German philologist Wilhelm von Humboldt, ancient Greece represented anything but revolution. As Minister of Education, he established the Altertumswissenshaft, the Science of Antiquity (or as its English counterpart was called, the discipline of Classics). Humboldt saw the study of classics as a means of educational reform and social unification that avoided both the destruction of revolution and the oppressive domination of the Roman church. It was a secular alternative that appealed to the Germans, who already felt a special connection to the Greeks linguistically.

Humboldt extended this relation to encompass culture: Our study of Greek history is therefore a matter quite different from our other historical studies. For us the Greeks step out of the circle of history.[AJDE MORE! -OD MODERATOROT] Knowledge of the Greeks is not merely pleasant, useful or necessary to us–no, in the Greeks alone we find the ideal of that which we should like to be and to produce.” To small fragmented states rapidly industrializing, where economic unity was becoming a necessity, Humboldt offered a wondrous vision of a Germany culturally united as heir apparent to the Greeks, ensuring the succession of the glory of the ancients. For the Romantics, the primary figure of Greek lore was Prometheus, the suffering genius bringing fire to the common people. In the latter part of the century, another figure predominated–the wandering, exiled king, the rightful ruler who puts his house in order: Odysseus.

What the eminently adaptable image of ancient Greece offered nineteenth-century Europe, then, was an identity, a means by which Europeans could interpret their past, evaluate their present, and propose their destiny. The Greeks afforded Europe a prolific source of cultural definition. Wagner may have looked north for such definition, but Bruch looked south, and he was not alone. For the Germans, the achievements of Greek culture was a powerful model for their own national identity–regardless of actual circumstances. In 1871, Bismarck succeeded in his plan of uniting Germany, though the unification was more a result of Prussian domination than mutual agreement. By 1873, optimism concerning the unification had vanished in the wake of a devastating market crash. But that year also saw two other events: the premiere of Bruch’s Odysseus, and Heinrich Schliemann’s discovery of the site of ancient Troy. “We are all Greeks,” said Shelley, but perhaps Bruch might have added, “especially Germans.”


Yes…after all Macedonia is only Macedonian and everyone wants a piece of the cradle of the worlds civilisation…

The Greek DNA

June 30, 2007

Lets turn to the matter od the origins of the Greeks…Look at the videos!

The Greek nation have no root on the Balkans…Their propaganda wants to steal my ancestors, the ancient Macedonians, like they want to steal the Turkish island of Cyprus…that is so poor…


Both Aristotle and Plutarch discuss the racial characteristics of of second and third generation black-white racial mixes in their works:

Further, children are like their more remote ancestors from whom nothing has come, for the resemblances recur at an interval of many generations, as in the case of the woman in Elis who had intercourse with the Aethiop; her daughter was not an Aethiop but the son of the daughter was.” Aristotle, Gen. An. 1.18.722A


“But parents may pass on resemblance after several generations, as in the case of the woman in Elis, who committed adultery with a negro; in this case it was not the woman’s own daughter, but the daughter’s child that was a blackamoor” Aristotle, Hist. An; 7.6.586A.

Further references to racially mixed types stretching over generations can be found in Plutarch’s De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 21.

Also previously mentioned was the herm of Memnon, which, according to Graindor, was a Negroid pupil of Herodes Atticus. This herm is ”of mongrel race but with the Negro type of North Africa, Nubia or Abyssinia, being prevalent.”(”“de race métisse mais avec prédominance du type nègre du Nord de l’Afrique, de la Nubie ou de l’Abyssinie.” – GRAINIDOR, P., 1915 Tête de Nègre du Musée de Berlin. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 39, p. 402.)


This brief overview shows conclusively that:
1. The Ancient Greeks were well aware of the Negroid and mixed racial types;

2. That Blacks were present, as slaves, mercenaries or freedmen, in Classical Grecian times; and

3. That racial mixing took place.

Our results show that Macedonians are related to other Mediterraneans and do not show a close relationship with Greeks; however they do with Cretans (Tables 3, 4, Figs 1–3). This supports the theory that Macedonians are one of the most ancient peoples existing in the Balkan peninsula, probably long before arrival of the Mycaenian Greeks (10) about 2000 B.C. Other possible explanation is that they might have shared a genetic background with the Greeks before an hypothetical admixture between Greeks and sub-Saharans might have occurred.

Alexander the Great of Macedonia – Great Macedonian king!

June 30, 2007

I can proudly present a video made for my ancestor – Alexander the Great!

While you watch the video, you can hear a beautiful Macedonian song dedicated to the Great Macedonian King.