Archive for the ‘1’ Category

January 30, 2009

Тодор Александров Попорушов (1881, Ново Село, Штип-1924, Сугарево, Пирински дел на Македонија), македонски револуционер и идеолог на обновената ВМРО во 1919 година, втемелувач на челична дисциплина, политичар на кој сите европски порти во секое време му биле отворени. Од многу аспекти го сметам за единствен. Неговата дисциплина, идеологија, политика, непокор. Просто човек на кого Македонија му е гориво. Прва постапка која почна да ги буди моите симпатии кон личноста на Александров е препознавањето на вистинската цел на младотурската револуција-чиста фарса. Во момент во кој ретко кој верува. Натаму историјата е вистинска приказна за себе. Од неговото учество во Првата светска војна, преку обновувањето на ВМРО но овој пат како многу поинаква и посилна организација од онаа за време на Османлиите, дејствувајќи, би рекол во многу покомплицирани услови, пред се поради поделбата на Македонија, дипломатските врски, активната мрежа на ќелии низ цела геогравска Македонија, функционирањето на редот и законот на ВМРО за сите Македонци како отпор кон окупаторите. Загинува несреќно и мистериозно. Се верува дека зад неговото убиство стои Иван Михајлов-Ванчо, личност која лично не можам да ја сварам.

Тодор Александров е роден на 4 март 1881 година, во Ново Село, Штип, во семејството на свештеникот Александар Поп-Орушев. Таткото на Тодор Александров, Александар Поп-Орушев, бил учител во Радовиш, просветител и богато надарен човек, црковен пејач, поет, собирач на народни умотворби и соработник на Гоце Делчев. Како ученик во Педагошката гимназија во Скопје во 1897 година, Тодор Александров се вклучува во Македонската револуционерна организација каде што останува сe до својата смрт на 30 август 1924 година.
Револуционерната дејност на Тодор Александров опфаќа три периода: првиот период од 1897 до 1911, вториот од 1911 до 1918 и третиот – од 1918 до 1924 година.

Во 1910 година, младотурците сакаат да го затворат Александров и нудат 4.000 турски лири за неговата глава, како што своевремено Турците давале златни лири за главата на македонските револуционери Гоце Делчев и Даме Груев.
Во Балканските војни Александров учествувал во одбраната на Кукуш, го брани градот на апостолот Гоце Делчев, но, за жал, не може да го спречи силниот и суров напад на грчката војска.

Тодор Александров соработува со Павел Шатев кој во своите спомени ќе забележи: “Тој ми остави впечаток на многу разумен, трезвен ум и подготвен за сите жртви пред олтарот на ослободителното дело“.
Поетот Пеју Јаворов, љубител на македонското револуционерно движење воодушевен од храброста на македонските комити, пред својата смрт му се обрати на Тодор Александров со проштално писмо, со желба да биде погребан во македонска комитска облека, а не во бугарска. Желбата му е исполнета и тој е погребан на 14 октомври 1914 година.
Марија Коева, ќерка на Тодор Александров, тврди: “Навистина, мојот татко се откажа од потписот на Мајскиот манифест, бидејќи не сакаше ВМРО да се болшевизира и да биде партија, туку да си остане татковинска патриотска организација се додека Македонија не стане држава“.

Содржината на Мајскиот манифест, навистина, е составена токму по налог на Тодор Александров, меѓутоа, објавениот Мајски манифест не е соодветен со оригиналот, што е причина Тодор Александров да се откаже од потписот. При објавувањето на Мајскиот манифест се присутни нечесни игри, кои се уште не се обработени во нашата историја.
Ванчо Панзов од Свети Николе, синот на телохранителот, тврди дека прво е убиен татко му Панзо, а потоа Тодор Александров. „Роден сум посмртче во Свети Николе, а српските власти шест месеци не им дозволиле на мојата мајка да ме крсти, само затоа што татко ми бил телохранител на Тодор Александров. Мојот татко не е бугарски агент, ниту бугарски полицаец, а ако бил тоа, тогаш целото семејство ќе го префрлеше во Софија, како што обично го прават тоа шпионите.
Панче Коцев Иванов од с. Врсаково, Штипско, вели дека Тодор Александров имал привидение. Кога на грб го пренесував преку реката Брегалница ми го кажа следното: “Ќе дојде ден Македонија ќе биде држава, но јас нема да дочекам“.

Во 1918 година, Тодор Александров ќе ја обнови Македонската револуционерна организација, кога сите сметаа дека Македонското прашање е погребано. Тодор Александров се појавува на хоризонтот и со игла започна да копа извор, нагласувајќи дека македонското прашање не е бугарско, туку македонско државно прашање. Во времето кога Александров влегувал и дејствувал во Вардарска Македонија, кралска Југославија ангажирала 35.000 војници, жандари, граничари, четници, жандарски станици и гранични пунктови. Од вкупно 17.000 жандари што ги имало во Југославија, 12.000 биле распоредени во Македонија. Во таква околности Александров влегува во Вардарска Македонија како човек од теренот, во кого се крие скромен лик на човек кого го јадат вошките по македонските села, хранејќи се со црниот леб на сиромашниот селанец. По македонските планини, каде што се неговите “канцеларии“, прима странски дипломати и новинари и дава интервјуа. Води преговори за Македонија во Лондон, Рим во Виена. Дипломатите во Лодон се изненадени од неговите солидни познавања на состојбите на Балканот, кога “наведува дека насилството на Балканот ќе создаде насилство и во Европа“. За Александров се испеани повеќе народни песни, па затоа не е логично еден револуционер, кој е опеан од народниот гениј, да се прикаже како предавник.
Кога е убиен Тодор Александров, најмногу се радувале Бугарите и Србите. Бугарите велеле: “Мртов, но употреблив“, Македонците, пак, велеле Македонија умре, а од странските дописници ќе биде забележан како македонски Робин Худ.

Една многу интересна работа која не е позната многу во Македонската историја а е забранета во Бугарската историја,имено по неколку годишното исчекување на Тодор Александров да Бугарскиот цар го исполни своето ветување кое го дава на Македонските револуционери за време на 1 светска војна и да прогласи автономна Македонија која под покровителство на големите сили би се обединила со вардарскиот и егејскиот дел Тодор Александров го праќа последниот ултиматум до владат и Бугарскиот цар за негово делување и исполнување на договорот.

Царот и Премиерот Бугарски во паника го признаваат Македонското малцинство и од страв на делување на Тодор Александров против државата се зближува со Сандански кој формира партија и пушта свои луѓе во Бугарскиот парламент тврдејки дека само на демократски начин Бугарија ке ја признае Автономна Македонија,но Александров кога дознал за тоа ги подигнал на оружје сите Македонски комити кои биле распоредени во Македонија (Вардарска, Егејска и Пиринска) – во еден натпис во весникот Илинден оваа општа мобилизација се опишува како второто Илинденско востание но било и повеке од тоа.

Александров вооружал и ставил на готовс 150 000 Македонски комити низ цела Македонија кои биле спремни на повикот „Слобода или Смрт“ да го дадат својот живот за Војводата Александров.Четите требале да се соберат на едно место за да тргнат на конечна битка за Македонија.

За четири дена го завземал Ќустендил,ги разоружал Бугарските полицајци и војска и ја осигурал границата на месноста Мал Завој кој гледал на Крива Паланка,Ќустендил го држел под власт цели 24 дена за кое време планирал напад и влез во Вардарска Македонија чекајки над 100 000 Македонски комити од цела Македонија.

Првите 35 000 комити ги распоредил околу градовите Паланка,Кратово и Куманово и се спремил за вооружена пресметка со Српската војска.5 000 Македонски комити оставил во Ќустендил а другите 12 000 од 17 000 кои го заземале Ќустендил ги повел во битка, но на излез од Ќустендил кај селото Ѓуешево, Бугарската војска координирана со Српската, која чекала од другата страна на границата, го сопрела на преговори.

Тодор Александров чекајки ги 100 000 комити од Егејска и Вардарска Македонија увидел дека е надброен и се сложил на преговори. Бугарската војска го оставила да се повлече од Ќустендил и да ги разоружа Македонските комити со цел да се почнат преговори за Автономна Обединета Македонија.

Неколку месеци по оваа акција Тодор Александров е убиен од зли предавници.

Семејството на Тодор пред неговиот гроб:

Патувањата на Тодор Александров се рамни на царски патувања, таму каде Ќе стаса Тој, на пример, во некоја далечна долина, долината добива живот, зад секое дрво будно стои стражар, секој жбун во шумата крие две очи, а селаните се собираат крај патеките изговарајки ги во шепт зборовите: “Тодор ќе минува оттука.“

( генерал Томсон во весник Тајмс, Лондон 1923 год.)

Македонците се обединија околу нивната стара институција ВМРО, која како и секогаш предизвикува сеопшто восхитување. Тодор Александров, сакан и уважуван од целиот народ, го зеде во свои раце раководењето со движењето. Роден е во Македонија, 42 годишен. Тодор Александров го посвети својот живот на македонската кауза уште кога беше на 18 годишна возраст. Тој е учител, човек со нескротлива енергија и строга моралност, народот го вика СТАРИОТ и го почитува. Војводите и комитите му се предани до крај. Таа предност е објаснението за неуспехот на српските и грчките власти, да му ги откријат скривалиштата и покрај тоа што Србија, за неговата глава таксува 700.000 динари. Тодор Александров се движи низ цела Македонија како АПОСТОЛ, тој ги посетува сите предели еден по друг. Влегува во села и градови ги собира жителите, им говори, ги советува. Тој никогаш не организира мерки за лична заштита, селаните му се предани, сите знаат каде оди и никој не помислува за предавство, напротив, сите жители на Македонија го чуваат на штрек. Александров е опкружен од една сила која не дозволува негово факање

(Колинз, за весникот Чикаго Дејли Њуз)

Тој нема да го остави оружјето се дотогаш, додека Македонија не добие слобода. Неговата верба Ќе издржи пред било што. Стари жени, деца, сите работат за ослободителното дело, сите се еднакво предадени на делото и умеат да ги чуват тајните што им се доверени. За комитите на Тодор Александров животот не значи ништо, кога се работи да се посвети за тоа свето дело, за слободата.

(Коментар на публицистот Лонг во унгарскиот Весник, Еко Де Данјуб”, 06.01.1024 год.)

Јас си замислував да сретнам еден страшен управувач, фанатичен и екзалтиран. Но, пред мене стоеше сосема поинаков човек. Слаб, доста висок, бледо лице, правилен профил, со прошарена брада, живи очи, понекогаш умислени, но постојано нежни. Тодор Александров, кој е на 42 години зборува спокојно, слатко, без гестови дури и за најважните прашања, за татковината и за себе. Неговото спокојство и ладнокрвноста предизвикуваат задоволство. И покрај тоа што тој човек е душата на Македонската револиција, има една железна волја, а неговиот решителен дух не престанува да ги восхитува оние кои го опкружуваат”.

(Публицист Пол Ерно, Весник Журнал”, Париз, 1924 год.)

Какви се плановите на тој човек, кој само со еден гест може да ја крене Македонија на нозе? Каде се наога Тој? Поставете ги прашањата на кого сакате, никој неможе да Ви одговори. Белградската влада нуди огромна сума пари на оној што Ќе го донесе жив или мртов Тодор Александров, а тој независно од големите опасности го продолжува своето дело како АПОСТОЛ. Денес тој е највлијателниот ме”у сите Македонци кои се стремат кон независност на Македонија. Неговиот живот е легендарен, тој носи иста униформа како и неговите комити, живее ист живот со комитите, се движи пеш како и другите, спие на земја, честопати се храни само со леб, носи пушка со 250 патрони, бомби, двоглед и раница во којашто е сместена архивата. Тој е војник и дипломат истовремено, тој е шеф на партизанските одреди. На прашањето: дали не се плаши, Тој ни одговори: Ни најмалку. Јас знам ни рече Тој се што се случува на 20 километри од околу нас. Македонија сака независност со главен град Солун. Македонците денес бараат независност во границите на Македонија пред 1912 год., тоа е нашето барање пред Европа. За Србите има само два начина за да ни одговорат: или дефинитивно да не уништат, или да ја признаат нашата независност”.

(Париски Журнал, септември 1923 год.)

Тодор Александров припаѓаше кон оние ретки, но целосно исполнети мажи со сопствена мисија, кој не живееше свој живот, а го живееше животот на својот народ. Непретенциозен, скромен, но притоа со нескршлива енергија и разум, секогаш имајќи ја пред очите големата цел. Се уште го гледам тој редок човек, макар што поминаа 10 години откако го сретнав и зборував со него за прв и последен пат. Освен Лав Толстој никој друг не ми остави таков неизбришлив впечаток, како Тодор Александров.

(Од Спомените на професор Ханс Јубербергер)

Колку голема била љубовта на Тодор Александров кон својата татковина, за да може да го победи како очајот, така и тешката болест на неговите ослабени гради и да вдахне вера кај цел еден народ, да го исправи одново на нозе подготвен за борба? Каква голема човечка особина и каква железна енергија е потребна да го поведеш одново еден осакатен народ по толку преживеани катастрофи. Факт е дека Тодор Александров во тој однос е единствениот историски пример. Дури сега го разбираме смисолот на искажаните зборови од странец кој вели дека не познава помаркантни личности на векот од Лав Толстој и Тодор Александров. Секој еден од тие титани беше единствен не само во своите татковини туку и во светот. А такви луге во историјата не се повторуваат. Ете зашто е толку голема тагата за великиот Тодор Александров. Ете зашто цел народ со стравопочит и благослов го шепоти името на “СТАРИОТ” на верниот свој водач. А за младите: ја преобразува тагата што ги стега во срцата, во волја и енергија за предана служба кон народот.

(Т.Александров во издание на македонската Студентска корпорација Скопје,1943)

Судбината ни определи уште една од најтешките жртви, која ги раскина срцата на сите прогонети Македонци и ја потопи во јад нашата намачена страна (Македонија). Злокобната вест за тоа грозоморно дело што го прекина животот на најдостојниот и најголемиот син на револуционерна Македонија, ја порази со својата одвратност целокупната македонска емиграција во Америка, која што е растреперена, восхитена од великото дело на ВМРО и благовее пред подвизите на нејзиниот прв водач и татко, Тодор Александров.Тој железен човек го обединуваше во себеси целокупното величие на македонскиот дух Историјата на неговиот живот е и историја на револуционерното движење Потомците Ќе им ги запишат имињата на оние (на убијците) со презир на нови ЈУДИ и нови Херостратовци затоа што тој е најсаканиот наш брат, татко и другар носител на народниот маченички крст и на светиот стремеж за самозачувување и поради тоа и сите оние од Европа и од другите страни, а кои се восхитуваат од големото во човекот, за слободата на народите Ќе ги симнат шапките (пред делото на тој покојник). Тодор Александров ја носеше татковината во срцето, во крвта и во целото тело. Александров Ќе биде спокоен и во гробот, бидејќи тој не беше и не е самСветиот блесок на неговиот подвиг Ќе го озорува патот на илјадниците следбеници се дотогаш додека не се извојува слободата на нашата несреЌна борбена татковина

Поклон пред големината на светоста на АЛЕКСАНДРОВОТО ДЕЛО.

(ЦК на Македонските политички организации, Индијанополис 24-ти септември 1924 год.)

Со своите високи квалитети, и покрај физичките страдања поради болест, која не простува, Александров беше станал легендарен конспиратор, кој дејствуваше неуморно на планините во Македонија. Неговата врховна цел беше независноста на Македонија, која во една самостојна држава Ќе ги вклучи деловите кои сега припагаат на Југославија, Грција и Б’лгарија, и така создавање на еден нов фактор за мир и балканска спогодба.

Грчката и српската политика по тој начин го принудија Тодор Александров и Македонската организација да започнат една енергична борба. Во еден период од три-четири години македонскиот шеф ги сплоти околу себе сите малцинства, незадоволни од режимот установен во Македонија после мировниот договор

(Весникот Трибун де Женев од 24.09.1924 год.)

Тодор со неговото семејство:

Тодор Александров е единствен водач на ВМРО, чија парола на самата организација била „Македонија на Македонците“. Вечна му слава!

Маcedonian History Archive

November 25, 2007

Аnciеnt Macedonia

  • Origin of the Ancient Macedonians – Pelasgians, Venets, others
  • The origin of the name Macedonia
  • Ancient Macedonian Culture – language, religion, army
  • All Ancient Macedonian Kings…

Macedonian kings from the legendary period

01. Karanus (700 BC)
02. Koin
03. Tirimma
04. Perdika I (653 BC)
05. Argej I (623 BC)
06. Filip I (593 BC)
07. Aerop I (563 BC)
08. Alketa (533 BC)
09. Aminta I (503 – 498 BC)


Macedonian kings from the historical period

10. Alexander I (498 – 452 BC)
11. Perdika II (452 – 413 BC)
12. Arhelaius I (413 – 399 BC)
13. Craterus (399 BC)
14. Orest (399 – 398/7 BC)
15. Aerop II – Archelaius II (398/7 – 395/4 BC)
16. Aminta II ‘the little one’ (394/3 BC)
17. Pausanius (394/3 BC)
18. Aminta III (394/3 – 370/369 BC)
19. Argej II (393 – 392/1 BC)
20. Alexander II (370/69 – 368 BC)
21. Ptolomej from Alor (367/6 – 366/5 BC)
22. Perdika III (365 – 359 BC)
23. Aminta IV (359 BC)
24. Filip II (359 – 336 BC)
25. Alexander III Macedonian – Alexander the Great (336 – 323 BC)

Macedonian rule in Macedonia and the Balkan Peninsula

26. Filip III Aridej (323 – 317 BC)
27. Alexander IV ‘son of Alexander the Great’ (323 – 309 BC)
28. Casander (316 – 297 BC)
29. Filip IV (297 BC)
30. Alexander V (297 – 294 BC)
31. Antipatar (297 – 294 BC)
32. Demetrij I Poliorket (294 – 287 BC)
33. Pir (287 – 285 BC)
34. Lisimah (287 – 281 BC)
35. Ptolomej Keaun (281 – 279 BC)
36. Meleager (279 BC)
37. Antipatar Etesij (279 BC)
38. Sosten (279 – 277 BC)
39. Antigon II Gonata (277 – 240/39 BC)
40. Demetrij II (239 – 229 BC)
41. Antigon III Doson (229 – 221 BC)
42. Filip V (221 – 179 BC)
43. Perseus (179 – 168 BC)
44. Filip VI Andrisk ‘false king’ (149 – 148 BC)
45. Alexander VI ‘false king’ (142 BC)

Macedonian rule in Asia – Seleucidae Dinasty
Macedonian rule in Egypt – Ptolemeias pharaoh Dinasty

  • Macedonian wars with Rome – Macedonia under Roman rule
  • Christianization of Macedonia 

Medieaval Macedonia

  • Macedonia and the Slav migrations
  • Macedonian Slav culture, religion, alphabet, literacy

Cyril and Methodius – foundation of glagolitic alphabet
The Slav Scholars Clemente and Naum – foundation of cyrilic alphabet
Foundation of Ohrid Archibieshopry

  • Macedonian medieval kingdoms

The Bogomils, Tsar Samuil, and its kingdom Sklavinia
Macedonian Byzantine Dynasty
Macedonian feudalism estates

Ottoman Macedonia

  • The macedonian uprising of Karpos
  • Macedonian culture during the ottoman rule

1. Joakim Krcovski
2. Kiril Pejcionvic
3. Jordan Hagi Konstatinov Ginot
4. Georgi Prlicev
5. Dimitar i Konstantin Miladinovi

  • The macedonian uprisings in Razlovci and Kresna

1. Dimitar Pop Georgiev Berovski
2. Dedo Iljo Malesevski

  • Berlin Treaty – Macedonia is given an autonomy
  • Macedonian revolutionary organization

1. Goce Delcev
2. Gjorce Petrov
3. Dame Gruev
4. Petar Pop Arsov
5. Pere Tosev
8. Jane Sandanski

  • Macedonian Ilinden uprising
  • Republic of Krusevo – first Balcan State

1. Nikola Karev
2. Pitu Guli

  • Macedonian situation after the Ilinden uprising

Partitioned Macedonia

  • The Balkan wars and the partition of Macedonia
  • Illegal Bucharest Treaty apsurd
  • Genocide Assimilation Denacionalization in occupied Macedonia
  • World War One and Macedonia in it
  • The Macedonian Question between the two world wars

1. Krste Petkov Misirkov
2. Dimitrija Cupovski
3. Macedonian Diaspora

  • World War Two and Macedonia in it
  • The foundation of NOV – national peoples freedoom movement

1. Kuzman Josifovski Pitu ‘the second Goce Delcev’
2. Mihajlo Apostolski 
3. Metodija Andonov Cento
4. Panko Brasnarov

  • ASNOM – Macedonia finaly free

Independent Macedonia

  • Macedonia in Yugoslavia
  • Establishing the Macedonian nation

1. Kosta Solev Racin
2. Blaze Koneski 

Macedonian state: language, alphabeth, church, culture, folklore
The crimes laid by the Yugoslav communists

  • Macedonia – Independent State

Modern Macedonian Issues

  • Bulgarian Macedonian Conflict

Bulgarian falsification of Macedonian History – Voden, Bitola inscriptions, other lies
Who are the Bulgarians – history sources and Bulgarian academics
Modern crisis in Bulgarian identity – They really don’t know who they really are
Macedonian minority in Bulgaria – Fight for Human Rights
Macedonia vs Bulgaria – History Arguments

  • Greek Macedonian Conflict

Ancient Quotes and Sources on the Macedonians as distinct Nation

01. Diodorus
02. Plutarch
03. Justin
04. Livy
05. Arrian
06. Polybius
07. Curtius Rufus
08. Thracymachus
09. Thucydides
10. Herodotus
11. Isocrates
12. Demosthenes
13. Ephoros
14. Josephus
15. Ptolemy
16. Strabo
17. Pausanias
18. Dionysius Periegetes
19. Medius of Larisa
20. Pseudo-Scylax
21. Pseudo-Herodotus
22. Dionysius son of Kalliphon

Modern Historians on the Macedonians as Distinct Nation

01. Eugene Borza
02. E. Badian
03. Peter Green
04. A.B. Bosworth
05. N.G.L. Hammond
06. Werner Jaeger
07. Pierre Jouquet
08. George Rawlinson M.A.

09. Ulrich Wilcken
10. M. Grant
11. F. Reed
12. David G. Hogarth
13. P.A. Brunt
14. American Philological Association

Difference between the Ancient Macedonians and the Ancient Helens
Ancient Macedonian – Distinct Indo European language
Greek genocide – Greek Civil War, Macedonian Children Refugees
Macedonian minority in Greece – Fight for Human Rights
Who really are the today’s greeks

Macedonia vs Greece – History Arguments

  • Albanian Macedonian Conflict

Macedonian Minority in Albania – Macedonian Muslims ‘the Gorans’
Macedonia vs Albania – History Arguments

  • Serbian Macedonian Conflict

Macedonian minority in Serbia – Kosovo is included
Macedonian Church issue – and the person Zoran V.
Macedonia vs Serbia – History Arguments

  • Macedonians everywhere else in the world

Macedonians in Australia
Macedonians in North America
Macedonians in Europe

  • Other Macedonian national issues

Documents – the continued existence of the Macedonian Nation for a 3000 years
Links with sources and proofs, about the mix of todays and Ancient Macedonians
Macedonian symbols – The Macedonian Sun
Macedonian symbols – The Macedonian Lion

Regards to the Macedonians all around the world

November 18, 2007

Listen to beautiful Macedonian music

Вакви песни и ваков мелос нема никаде во светот, ова е наше богатство!

Да живее Македонија и Македонците!

YOUTUBE Playlist | YOUTUBE плејлиста

Macedonians of Bulgaria

September 28, 2007

macedonians_of_bulgaria_1999.doc

Read to find out more about the ethnic Macedonians living in Bulgaria.

Greek Evidence on the Authenticity of the Macedonians

August 7, 2007

The Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Greece had good diplomatic and neighborly relations in the past, although certain Greek people regarded the Macedonian state a thorn in their flesh and occasionally some extreme blabbermouth could be heard uttering epithets like the State of Skopje or the Skopje Cancer. However, ever since the Republic of Macedonia requested international recognition, Greece has been flooded with an unprecedented powerful campaign, in which, regretfully; science has also been involved. Scientists with a nationalistic inclination have been engaged and politicians with extreme nationalistic views have been competing in displaying their ‘unique’ patriotism and at the same time casting aspersions on the country which they have chosen to call Skopje or the Republic invented by the Comintern. There are even some who demand that guns should be turned towards and used against ‘the little state’ – as they mockingly call the Republic of Macedonia. Their aim is to prove that the name of Macedonia is an exclusive Greek property, that there has never existed a Macedonian nation, that the recognition of Macedonia will destabilize the Balkans, etc.
The purpose of this article, therefore, is to try and show the world community the absurdity of the Greek campaign against our country, bringing to light at least a fragment of the historical truth about Macedonia and the Macedonians, both those living in the Republic of Macedonia and those in Greece.
As a start let us look at the name of Macedonia. Modern Greece constantly turns to ancient Greek mythology to justify their theory. According to one source, the land was named Macedonia after Macedon, the son of Zeus and Thia; a second version claims that the name was derived from Macedon, one of the ten sons of the god Aeolus; a third version says that Macedon was the son of someone called Likaon, and according to a fourth one, Macedon was the son of the Egyptian god Osiris. Which of these four versions can we trust? Ulrich Wilken, a German historian, states that the Greek adherence to old myths is an attempt to justify their present views, i.e. lacking proofs of the Greek thesis, they resort to mythology, legends and tradition.
Furthermore, since the Greek people do not really believe in the mythical origin of the name of Macedonia, a new explanation is being forced; namely that the root of the name, mak- is of Doric origin and means ‘long’ or ‘tall’ and its derivatives, Makednos or Makedanos, mean ‘tall people’. These interpretation have been attributed to Herodotus, the Father of History, as Greek scholars cal him. The aim here is to link the Macedonian with the Dorian people, the latter being claimed to be one of the Macedonian tribes. However, when it comes to proving the Doric origin of the Macedonians, or vice versa, Herodotus has no arguments to offer and therefore turns to traditions. This view is also supported by Prof D. Pantermalis, an archeologist, who wrote the following in the Greek newspaper Neos kosmos of 14th November 1988, published in Melbourne, Australia: “We have mentioned earlier a tradition which claims the Dorians to have been descended from the Makedons or Makednos. Herodotus must have come by this information either through evidence he himself had collected in some of the Doric towns or through the story of an ancient epic by Aegimius…”
Furthermore, Prof. D. Pantermalis also gave an interview published in Neos kosmos of 28th February 1991. Asked why foreign scholars were reserved over the question, the archeologist answered: “There are certain matters which require further clarification, and unfortunately certain interpretations in the past well as today have been wrongly based on such unclarified matters. Thus, for example, ancient texts often speak about the Macedonians and the Greeks, as two separate nations and we ought to differentiate between them. I would also add a more recent example: we speak of the Greeks and the Cypriots.” Needless to say, this is only a superficial example, since, when we speak a Macedonian we do not mean a Greek from Macedonia, but one descended from Macedonia by origin and by nationality.
The Greek historian, D. Kanatsulis, disagrees with the interpretations given by Prof. Pantermalis. In his History of Macedonia until Constantine the Great published in Salonica in 1964, on page 67 D. Kanatsulis writes that the Dorian and the Macedonian were two different peoples, although both appear on territory of Macedonia at almost the same time. On page 12 of this publication we read: “On the descent of the Illyrians and some other peoples in the 12th and 11th centuries BC, the Dorians were forced to move further south and majority of them settled on the Pelloponnesos whereas the Macedonians stayed in Western Macedonia.”
D. Kanatsulis emphasizes that the Macedonians had a strong feeling of constituting a separate ethnic group not only during the time of the independent Macedonian state, but also during the Roman era. “The Macedonians,” he says, were primarily citizens of the state and only after that members of the municipality where they were born or where they lived. Thus, in the official documents in which all names were entered, the personal name was followed by the nationality – Macedonian, and then came the birthplace or the place of residence, for example: a Macedonian from Aegea, a Macedonian from Edessa, etc.” (page 82).
Similarly ancient Macedonian historians and writers, though writing in the common language (a blend of ancient Greek and the local Macedonian when signing their names always added that they were Macedonian language); as, for example: Chrisogonis from Edessa, a Macedonian; Adaios the Macedonian; Antipatris the Macedonian. (Prof Photis Petsas: A Journey in Northern Greece, Elinikos voras, February 1976). Not one of them wrote that he was a Hellene.
Now, back to the name of Macedonia. Looking at Ilios, a Greek encyclopedia periodical, on page 801 we find the chapter entitled ‘The History of Macedonia’. Its third Paragraph begins with the words: “The Macedonians or Macedons inhabited this territory and called it Macedonia…,” which confirms that before the arrival of the Macedonians the territory had had other names (Imatia, Aeordea, Almopia and perhaps others) and that the Macedonian newcomers named it Macedonia. Another archeologist, Prof Photis Petsas, gives even a more detailed account: “Macedonia was so named after the Macedonian People in the year 700 BC, who used to inhabit the territory to the west of the Vermion Mountain…What interests us today;” says Prof Petsas, “is that the Macedonians gave their own name to the land, calling it Macedonia, and expanded it in the south to Mount Olympus, in the west to the Pindus Mountain, in the east to the river Nestos (the Mesta) and to the Erigon in the north.” (Prof Photis Petsas: Macedonia and the Macedonians…, Elinikos voras, 12th February 1978).
The ancient Greek man of letters, Isocrates, claims that there were no grounds for the identification of Ancient Macedonia with Ancient Greece, nor the Ancient Macedonians with the Ancient Greeks. In his book Filip (pp l07-108), Isocrates places Macedonia outside the boundaries of Greece and considers the Macedonians non~Greek tribesmen. Both ancient and contemporary geographers and historians, such as Eforos, Pseudoskilaks, Dionisios Kalifondas, Dikearhos, Athineos and others, state that the northern boundaries of Greece begin at the Amvrakis Bay in the west and go to the Peneos River in the east (Makedonia, an anthology, Athens, 1982, p.50). In this connection, the modern Greek scholar J. Kaleris writes: “In the middle of the 5th century BC, the name Macedonia was given to the land spreading from Lake Lychnida in the west, the Strymon River in the east and to the Erigon and Vardar Rivers in the north (The Language of the Macedonians, an anthology, Athens, 1992). According to historians and geographers mentioned above, the territories north of a line Amvrakis Bay to the River Peneos were inhabited by the Macedonian people (same Anthology, p. 122). The ancient geographer, Ptolemy, gives an even more precise description of the boundaries of Macedonia, saying that in the north they reached the Sar (Skardos) Mountains, in the north-east the Pirin (Orbilos) Mountains and in the south the Peneos River.
If these are the recognized boundaries of Macedonia, how could the encompassed by the Mountains of Kajmakcalan, Kozuf, Belasica and Sar be denied the name Macedonia, even though, under the Treaty of Bucharest, a part of Macedonia was allotted to Greece? Referring to this problem, the Honorary President of the Communist Party of Greece, Harilaos Florianis, says in an interview: “Are we trying to say that 39% of the geographical territory of Macedonia is ‘Skopje’? Isn’t that, in fact, a section of the territory of Macedonia?” (Rizospastis, 2nd September, 1992).
Certain Greek scholars lacking a critical eye and disregarding historical arguments, consider the ancient Macedonians as Greeks and their language a Greek dialect. However, anyone looking at the facts with an open mind will realize that this is far from being true. Authentic evidence shows that the ancient Greeks regarded the Macedonian people as barbarians and Macedonia a barbaric land. This is also what the two coryphaei of Greek history, Thucydides and Demosthenes thought of ancient Macedonians. As a matter of fact, the ancient Greeks considered all non-Greek people barbarian and their land barbaric. Thus in his third Philippic, Demosthenes states: “… Ay, and you know this also, that the wrongs which the Greeks suffered from the Lacedaemonians or from us, they suffered at all events at the hands of true-born sons of Greece, and they might have been regarded as the acts of a legitimate son, born to great possessions, who should be guilty of some fault or error in the management of his estate: so far he would deserve blame and reproach, yet it could not be said that it was not one of the blood, not the lawful heir who was acting thus. But if some slave or superstitious bastard had wasted and squandered what he had no right to, heavens! How much more monstrous and exasperating all would have called it! Yet they have no such qualms about Philip and his present conduct, though he is not only no Greek, nor related to the Greeks, but not even a barbarian from any place that can be named with honor, but a pestilent knave from Macedonia, whence it was never yet possible to buy a decent slave …” (Demosthene Crationes, IX, p.26, and Istorija diplomatije, vol.1, p.49).
Further evidence that the Macedonians were not Hellenes can be of the Manifesto of Polyperchon, regent to the Macedonian throne and envoy to the Greek city-states in the year 319 BC, where we read: “Our ancestors [meaning the Macedonians – author’s note) were always kind to the Hellenes and intend to continue their good ways and give proof of our goodwill towards the Greek people.” (Istorija diplomatije, p. 53, reference taken from Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheka historika, XVIII, p. 55).
The modern Greek scholar, Karagatsis, makes his contribution to the clarification of the question whether the ancient Macedonians were Greek or not. The master work of this respected author, History of the Greek People, 1952, raised a great commotion in the camp of the nationalistically oriented intellec-tuals of Greece. Karagatsis, however, disregarded the burden of tradition and mythology and claimed that reality was different (p. 314). “It is the King of the Macedonians,” he says, “that is the hegemon of the Greeks. The Congress is summoned by the hegemon, but is never chaired by him, because the hegemon is not Greek.” (p. 340).
Many circles in Greece turned against Karagatsis. Thus Stefanos Hrisos, a critic, states the following in his article in the Salonica newspaper Makedonia: “I believe that it is a moral obligation of every Greek, particularly those in Northern Greece, to raise his voice and demand that this book by Karagatsis should not leave the boundaries of Greece or be translated into other languages, and, if possible, be withdrawn from the shops. We might have expected such bad language from our neighbors but never from a Greek writer…”
Last year, during the heavy Greek-wide campaign against the international recognition of the Republic of Macedonia, a collection entitled The Language of the Macedonians was published, which comprised contributions by distinguished university professors, the purpose of which was to boost the Greek thesis that the ancient Macedonians were Greek people and spoke the Greek language. However, even in such a publication one finds concessions that the Macedonians in fact spoke a language different from the Greek.
Ana Panaiotou, for example, in the article ‘The Language of Captions in Macedonia’, says that “the Macedonians communicated among themselves in the Koine (common) language; the use of the Macedonian dialect was shrinking and became limited to conversations within a family or within small tribal circles. The last extant records on the Macedonian dialect,” Panaiotou continues, “date from the first century BC” This author also informs us that the oldest facts on the Macedonian language date from the fifth century BC With the arrival of Alexander the Great that language stopped being the means of communication. “People used this language,” Panaiotou says, “at moments of anger or great excitement and when only Macedonians were present” (p. 187). To support her statement, Ana Panaiotou turns to Plutarch, who claims that while killing Cleitus, at a moment of great distress, Alexander the Great “cried out in the Macedonian language” (Plutarch, Vii parallili, chapter ‘Alexander the Great’ – eighth installment in the periodical Ilios, 20th March 1954).
Ana Panaiotou also draws attention to the example of Eumenes, an officer in Alexander’s army. He himself was not Macedonian, but once, after an illness, when walking among his Macedonian soldiers, he greeted them in the Macedo-nian language. She also mentions that Queen Cleopatra had lessons in Macedo-nian. In the same collected edition, Pro£ J. Kaleris says that “the Macedonian language was often used with the purpose of winning the trust of the Macedonian people.” In the periodical Mesiniaka, J. Kordatos, a historian and sociolog-ist, undeniably declares that the ancient Macedonians spoke a language different from Greek.
Blinded by their fanaticism, the Greek nationalists categorically deny the Macedonians of today the right to bear that name; instead, they suggest names like Dardanians, Sclavins and the like. when the ancient Macedonian people arrived on the Balkan Peninsula, according to accepted sources, they retained their old name. This, however, was not the case with the modern Macedonians; when they settled in Macedonia in the 5th and 6th centuries AD, they still bore their tribal names – Sagudats, Rinhins, Smolyans, Brsyaks, etc. Gradually and spontaneously, these tribes took on the name of the region they had inhabited or, perhaps, of the people living there, who began to become assimilated with the newcomer Slavs, Pechenese, Kumans and others. Many Byzantine chronicle writers, such as Georgios Monahos, Leon the Dean, Ivan the Geometrician, Ana Comnena and Georgios Kedrinos mention the Macedo-nian Slavs. Even Emperor Constantine himself writes about the Macedonian people (Makedones); Leon the Dean refers to them as ta ton Makedonon; Nikiforos Vrionos speaks of one Vasilios Kurtina as the anir Makedon; Ana Comnena says that someone called Tornik is a Makedon, etc. (Stjepan Antoljak, Samoilovata drzava, Skopje, 1969, pp 78-80).
Despite the frequent conquests first by Byzantium, then by the Bulgar and the Serb Kingdoms and finally by the Ottoman Empire, the name Macedonian persisted in use. Thus the European traveler Bertrand de la Brokier wrote in 1432 that the Macedonian people were the predominant population of Macedo-nia, differentiating them from the Greeks, the Bulgars and the Serbs (Jordan Ivanov; Bqlgarite v Makedonia, Sofia 1917, pp. 109-110). Similarly, the Venetian marine officer, Angiolello, who traveled via Macedonia on his way to Constan-tinople, regarded the Macedonians as different from the Greek people. In his diary Angiolello wrote: “On 14th August, the Great Master dropped anchor off the coast of Mount Athos, a mountain on which there are many monasteries and Christian monks, some of them Greek, others Macedonian or Vlach.” He, then, goes on to say: “Both Greek and Macedonian people live there…” (K Merdzhios, Mnimia makedonikis istorias). Furthermore, the Regulations and the Constitution of the Razlog and the Kresna Uprisings in 1876 and 1878, as well as the documents of the interim government of Macedonia of 1880, clearly define the nationality of the Macedonian people. Terms like Macedonian Uprising, Macedonian army, Macedonian people leave no doubt as to the national denomi-nation of the Macedonian people.
Greece manifested territorial aspirations towards Macedonia soon after it became an independent state. Various societies, such as the Association for the Promotion of Greek Literacy and, later, the armed gangs operating in Macedonia and fighting the so-called Macedonian war, had a sole purpose of converting the Macedonian population into Greek and if reeducation did not produce the expected results, they resorted to using arms. In this connection, Joannis Kordatos has written the following: “Bulgaria and Greece, as well as Serbia, sent soldiers to Macedonia in order to change the national affinity of the local population…”
“A large percentage of the farmers in Macedonia,” Kordatos continues, “spoke a Slavonic dialect, using a lot of Greek and Turkish words; however, the essence of the dialect was Slavonic. The Slavo-Macedonian dialect was the dominant language in many areas in Macedonia. In a survey which Blunt, the British consul in Salonica, conducted in 1888 and printed in the following year in the English Blue Book, we find that the Greeks constituted the majority in the coastal belt, in Ber, Lagadin, Ser and Zihnen. But the inland areas of Macedonia were inhabited by Slavophones…”
“The wide masses of Macedonia,” says Kordatos, “were oppressed not only by the pashas, beys and agas, but also by the local rich people and the Greek high church officials. Therefore, the majority of the Slavophone Macedonians decided to rise against the Turkish tyranny and the injustice of the Metropolitans, and in an autonomous and independent Macedonia to build political and national equality…” (loannis Kordatos, Istoria tis neas Ellados, vol.5, Athens 1955, pp. 41A2).
Two other Greeks, whose patriotism cannot be doubted, give evidence of how widely this Slavonic dialect (as Kordatos calls the Macedonian language) was spoken.
The highly respectable periodical Makedonika, the publication of the Society of Macedonian Studies in Salonica, in volume 3 of 1976, pp. 114-145, carries the report of Dimitrios Soros, chief Greek school inspector in the Salonica area in 1906, which contains the names of the villages in this area where Macedonian was the predominant language. Outside the walls of Salonica the population speaks a Slavo-Macedonian language, the ‘so-called Bulgarian dia-lect’.” Using the term ‘so-called Bulgarian dialect’, the inspector undoubtedly points out that this language is distinct from Bulgarian, though people accepted the term without giving its meaning a second thought.
In his longer article ‘The Epopee from 1912 to 1913’, the Greek academician Spiros Melas expresses his astonishment that the Macedonian population did not extend a welcome to the Greek army when it marched through Macedonia, pretending to be ‘the liberator’ during the Balkan Wars. The ‘poor’ people had anticipated the kind of liberty planned for them. This is how S. Melas describes the reception the army met with: “Occasionally, all of a sudden a village woman would step out and start swearing in her own difficult Macedonian language…”
“Then,” Melas goes on, “our soldiers would surround her and offering her money would demand bread, wine, brandy or oil. But what we invariably got in return was a stereotype word like the one the first Slavophone villager, his head bent down, whom we had met outside the village of Negus, had addressed to us. All the way to the outskirts of Salonica and further on, to the town of Lerin, wherever we went we heard the same melancholic answer to all our demands: No, we don’t have any!” (Spiros Melas, ‘The Epopee from 1912 to 1913’, published in installments in the newspaper Acropolis in 1952).
Similar descriptions can be found in the book The War between Greece and Turkey and the Macedonian Expedition by Stratos Ktenaveas. On pages 145-148 we read: “The farmers from around Salonica locked up their doors. Holding their money in their hands, the soldiers kept asking for bread, salt, flour and onions. ‘No’ was the answer. It sounded like a slogan – ‘No, there’s nothing here’.”
“In vain,” continues Ktenaveas, “did the soldiers of all branches visit the houses all day long; all doors were locked up and the women answered from behind them: ‘We don’t have anything’!”
These poor farmers still remembered the atrocities the Greek armed gangs (the andarti) had committed in Zelenic, Lerin, Zagoricani and Kostur, atrocities which made even the infamous Turkish police force shiver.
Speaking about the composition of the population in the Aegean part of Macedonia prior to its Greek annexation, the Greek expert economist A. Aegidis states: “At the time when Greek sovereignty was established over Macedonia, it was estimated that 57,4% of its population were ‘foreign elements’ and that the Greeks constituted 42.6% of the inhabitants, which is probably exaggerated because in the survey of 1912, for obvious reasons, many inhabitants of Macedonia were entered as Greeks, even though they did not hold themselves as such… It should not be forgotten,” Aegidis continues, “that the minority that ‘weighed the heaviest on the ethnologic scales of Macedonia’ was the Slavophone population.” (A. Aegidis, I Ellas horis prosfIges, Athens 1930, pp. 168-169).
At the Balkan conference in Athens in 1928, in the presence of repre-sentatives from all the Balkan countries, the Greek Prime Minister, Fleutherios Venizelos, was asked by a Bulgarian journalist about the situation of the Slavonic minority in Greece. His answer sounded like mockery: “If that population demands schools in their own language, I’ll be the first in Greece to see to it that they get them.” Similarly, when asked about the rights of the Macedonian minority in Greece, Andreadis, the Greek delegate in the League of Nations, answered: “The Slavonic minority in Greece will be given all rights the moment they ask for them.” How insincere the Prime Minister and the Greek diplomat were can be seen in the case of the Abecedar (Primer).
Pressed by the League of Nations and obliged by the Sevres Treaty of 1920, the Greek government allowed the publication of a Primer for the Macedonian children in Greece. The Primer was reviewed by Nikolaos Zarifis, a Greek Balkanologist, as follows: “Here is a primer for the Slavophones, which has been carefully and conscientiously written by the specialists Papazahariou, Sayaktsis and Lazarou. Despite the difficulties encountered during its preparation, this useful manual has a considerable scientific value… What we have before us,” N. Zarifis says, “is a primer entitled Abecedar, meant for use in the schools that are to be opened in Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace for the needs of the Slavophone population. This primer will be used to teach the children of the Slavophones in Greece. It was written in the Macedonian dialect [underlined by the author] and printed in the Latin alphabet,” (Article by Nikolaos Zarifis in the newspaper Elleutheron vima, of 19th October 1925).
Immediately after its publication, the primer was sent to the western part of Aegean Macedonia. However, it never got into the hands of the people it had been intended for. And it was the police units of F. Venizelos and no one else that saw to that. In the period between the two Wars, the Greek governments implemented a double policy towards the Macedonian people in Greece. On the one hand, pressed by the League of Nations, Greece showed a readiness to recognize the minority rights of the Macedonians, and on the other, through terror and psychological pressure on the Macedonian people, they intended to force them to emigrate from the country. The bloody event in the village of Trlis near Ser in 1929, which was also investigated by the Carnegie Commission, was not an isolated case of terror. In addition, constant attempts were made to assimilate and denationalize the Macedonian population. Leaders in this cam-paign were the newspapers Eleutheros logos (see the issue of 2nd January 1927), Emborikj (see the issue of 25th December 1928), Makedonia and Akropolis. The Parliament also frequently pronounced themselves in favor of psychological and linguistic assimilation of the Macedonian people.
Vasilios Vizas, People’s Deputy from Kozani, wrote the following in the newspaper Eparhiaki foni published in Kajlari on 16th November 1930:
“It has been 18 years since the liberation of Macedonia. In this period we have had many governmens from various parties, but we have not seen a systematic state policy with respect to the national question, so extremely important for the Psychological and linguistic assimilation of those who speak a foreign dialect, particularly the Slavophone inhabitants of Macedonia… In the ‘foreign language’ areas nothing has really changed with respect to the language since the liberation of Macedonia. These areas have remained faithful to their dialect and to customs alien to the Greek. I even dare say that the people of certain Macedonian areas have reinforced their earlier national feeling instead of losing it…”
What Deputy Vasilios Vizas demanded of the Parliament was put into practice by the dictator Ioannis Metaxas, Greek Prime Minister from 1936 to 1941, in whose period about 6,000 Macedonians, together with the communists, were fined, harassed or sent to the islands simply because they spoke the Macedonian language. This genocide of the Macedonian people in Greece was condemned even by some right-wingers, such as Sotirios Kodzhamanis, General D. Zafiropoulos and the journalist Polis Ioannidis. On one occasion, S. Kodzhamanis wrote: “Swearing at old men and women in the street or dragging them through police stations solely because they do not speak Greek can be done only in an unjust regime, which transfers the responsibility for the current situation from the history and the state to innocent individuals.” (Sotirios Kodzhamanis, National questions, Salonica 1954, p.40).
In his longer article The Mystery of Goche, Polis Ioannidis wrote: “These people are stricken by poverty and they have been spurned since the moment they were born…
In the period between the two Wars the only hope the Macedonian people in Greece had for the preservation of their national identity and for the realization of their basic national rights as a minority came from the Greek Communist Party. Between 1924 and 1935, the latter supported the idea of self-determination of the Macedonian people in Greece as well as for the independence and unity of Macedonia and Thrace, which later changed into a demand for “national equality for the minorities within the Greek state”.
Speaking in favor of the demands of the Macedonian people in Greece, the leader of the parliamentary group of the Communist Party, Stelios Sklavenas, declared at the Parliamentary sitting of 25th April 1936: “Another problem which the Government keeps ignoring in its declarations is the question of giving the minorities in Greece rights equal to those of the native Greek population. This refers in the first place to the Macedonian people. Anyone who has traveled through Macedonia must have felt the specific pressure exerted on the Macedo-nians. They have been strictly forbidden to have their own schools, speak their own language or practice their own customs. As a result, the people are getting organized and ready to fight for their rights, in which we can’t but support them. The winning countries in the Great War and the League of Nations sanctioned the right for the self-determination of oppressed nations. And we also grant this right to the Macedonian people…
General Metaxas established his dictatorship on 4th August 1936. One of the first things he did was to retaliate against deputy Stelios Sklavenas for his speech in Parliament in support of the Macedonian cause, by sending him to the dungeons of Manyadakis, chief of the Security police, where he was virtually subjected to inquisition.
As a conclusion to what has so far been said about the Greek denial of the admission of the Republic of Macedonia into the international institutions, the Greek claim to the exclusive right to the name of Macedonia and their non-recognition of the Macedonian minority in Greece, we would like to draw the attention of the reader to the visionary ideas and words of the former leader of the Left Liberals in Greece, Ioannis Sofianopoulos. As early as 1927, when the Greek Parliament debated minority rights in the country; this man of virtue anticipated future events.
“By what means can we tame the spirits and eradicate the hatred?” he wonders and then adds: “There are three essential elements. a real protection of the minorities, which would forbid any forced emigration, education of the new generation in schools, and good traffic connections with all Balkancountries… Everybody should understand,” Sofianopoulos concludes, “that we cannot endlesslychange the family name suffixes -opoulos into -opovich, then into -opov, or in the reverse direction, and that the mind should be free and the will of the individual fully respected.” (Ioannis Sofianopoulos, Pos ida tin Valkaniki, Athens 1927, p.204).

WHO SAYS THERE ARE NO MINORITY LANGUAGES IN GREECE?

July 26, 2007

It is widely known that Greece refuses to acknowledge the existence of national minorities and minority languages. Similarly, in the Greek census of 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 any mention of one’s mother tongue is absent. This is not by chance but, rather, a deliberate policy of the Greek government. In the earlier census of 1940 and 1951 one can find such declarations as “Slavic” language. Whereas, in the census of 1928 one can find a language declaration of “Slav Macedonian.”

However, in the census of 1920, immediately after Greece’s acquisition of the “New Territories” the government of the day offers some revealing information. In the census of 19 December, 1920, the official Greek census form had a separate area asking: “what is your mother tongue? What is the language you speak at home? If your mother tongue is not Greek do you understand Greek? This census document can be found in the book by M. Houliarakis (Geografiki, dioikitiki kai plithismiaki ekseliksi tis Ellados tom G’ page 363)

The data obtained from the census of 1920 offers great detail about the population to the point of distinguishing between deaf males and deaf females. It also includes the data on language and mother tongue.

Unfortunately, the census information relating to the population of the “New Territories” was never made public. This information preceded the exchanges of Christian and Muslim populations between Turkey and Greece or the so-called “voluntary” population exchanges between Greece and Bulgaria.

At that time Greece only published the results from the geographic area of “old Greece” (Sterea, Evoia, Thessalia, Arta, Ionian Islands, Cyclades, Peloponese…). Five volumes containing census data from the “New Territories,” which included information on religion and language, were prohibited from being made public.

In the archives of the Census Council or the General Archives of the Greek state we shall not find census data on the northern territories (the new territories of Macedonia and Western Thrace) for the census period of 1920.

However, page 182 of the volume of census data for 1920 (published in 1929) for the area of Trikala (in Thessaly and Arta just south of the new territories) the following linguistic categories are reported for mother tongue:

Greek, Spanish, Romi, Koutsovlach, Albanian, Bulgarian, Serbian and 37 individuals from Trikala who declared their mother tongue as Macedonian. [page 1] | [page 2]

This is official census data published by the Greek government wherein, not only is the Macedonian language documented by the census authority but it is rightly distinguished from Bulgarian and Serbian.

One can now appreciate why the 1920 census results for the “New Territories” have gone missing.

We would like to thank Mr. Dimitrios Lithoksoou for uncovering this data, which we published in Volume 5 of our magazine, Nova Zora (New Dawn). Mr. Lithoksoou has his own Web site with several pages of interest to the Macedonians of Greece.

Macedonian news:

Greek Acts against the Macedonians

July 24, 2007

Greek Acts against the Macedonians

(1912 – 1994)

By Peter Medichkov

The following chronicles the methods employed by Greece in its effort to eradicate the centuries old Macedonian ethnic presence in Aegean Macedonia (Greek Macedonia) in the name of Greek territorial expansion. Specific laws and decrees are presented against the backdrop of relevant historical events affecting Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia.

The chronology begins in 1912 when Greece, for the first time ever, came into possession of Macedonian territory and this by force of arms, almost a decade after the 1903 Ilinden (St. Iliya Day) Uprising lead by the IMRO (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization) in a failed effort to free Macedonia from the Ottoman yoke.

The ominous prophecy of Harilaos Trikoupis, Greek Prime Minister from 1882 to 1895, foretold what the neighboring Greek state had in mind for Macedonia and its people:

“When the Great War comes, Macedonia will become Greek or Bulgarian, according to who wins. If it is taken by the Bulgarians, they will make the population Slavs. If we take it, we will make all of them Greeks”.

——————————————————————————–

1912 Balkan Wars

Irredentist Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro drive a crumbling Ottoman Empire out of the Balkans and pursue territorial expansion into Macedonia. Greek army enters Aegean Macedonia ostensibly to “liberate” Macedonia from the Ottoman.

1913

The Greek, Serbian, Bulgarian alliance breaks down over competing claims for Macedonia. Bulgaria miscalculates and attacks Serbia and Greek armies. Ottoman forces rejoin the war against Bulgaria. Bulgaria defeated, loses territorial gains in Macedonia.

From “liberation to tyranny”, Greek army commences savage and bloody “ethnic cleansing” of the towns of Kukush, Doiran, Demir-Hisar and Serres in the Aegean Macedonia.

160 Macedonian villages burned, and atrocities committed. Mass exodus of refugees.

Treaty of Bucharest (Aug. 10, 1913), ends the War and partitions Macedonia.

Greece refers to conquered Macedonian lands as the “new territories” under “military administration”. Not yet officially incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece.

Military occupation augmented by influx of administrators, educators; police brought from Greece.

Professor R.A. Reiss reports to the Greek government: “Those whom you would call Bulgarian speakers I would simply call Macedonians…Macedonian is not the language they speak in Sofia…I repeat the mass of inhabitants there (Macedonia) remain simply Macedonians.”

1917

LAW 1051 Greece inaugurates new administrative jurisdictions for governing newly acquired lands in Aegean Macedonia.

1919 Treaty of Versailles (Paris)

England and France ratify the principles of the Bucharest Treaty and endorse the partition of Macedonia.

Greece pursues the forced expulsion and denationalization of Macedonians and begins colonization by transfering “Greeks” into Aegean Macedonia.

Article 51 of Treaty of Versailles espouses equality of civil rights, education, language, and religion for all national minorities which Greece violates and ignores.

Neuilly Convention and forced exchange of populations. About 70,000 Macedonians expelled from Aegean Macedonia to Bulgaria and 25,000 Greeks transfered from Bulgaria to Aegean Macedonia.

Greek Commission on Toponyms issues instructions for choosing Hellenized names for Macedonian places in Aegean Macedonia.

1920

Greek Ministry of Internal Affairs publishes booklet: “Advice on the change of the names of municipalities and villages” in Aegean Macedonia.

1925

76 names of Macedonian villages and towns in Aegean Macedonia Greekized since 1918 by Greek authorities.

League of Nations pressures on Greece to extend rights to Macedonian minority.

ABECEDAR Primer printed in Athens for use by Macedonian school children in Aegean Macedonia. Written in Latin alphabet and reflects the Macedonian language spoken in Bitola-Lerin (Florina) district in Western Aegean Macedonia.

Serbs and Bulgarians protest to League of Nations. Primer undermines their claim that Macedonians are Serbs and Bulgarians respectively.

Greece counters with last minute cable to League: “the population…..knows neither the Serbian nor the Bulgarian language and speaks nothing but a Slav-Macedonian idiom.”

Greece “retreats” so as to preserve Balkan alliances. Primer is destroyed after League of Nations delegates leave Salonika (Solun).

Thereafter, Greece denies existence of Macedonians. Refers to Macedonians as “Slavophone Greeks”, “Old Bulgarians” and many other appellations but not as Macedonians.

1926

Legislative Orders in Government Gazette #331 orders Macedonian names of towns, villages, mountains changed to Greek names.

1927

Cyrillic inscriptions ( Macedonian alphabet) in churches, tombstones and icons rewritten or destroyed. Church services in the Macedonian language are outlawed.

Macedonians ordered to abandon personal names and under Duress adopt Greek names assigned to them by the Greek state.

1928

1, 497 Macedonian place names in Aegean Macedonia Greekized since 1926.

English Journalist V. Hild reveals, “The Greeks do not only persecute living Macedonians., but they even persecute dead ones. They do not leave them in peace even in the graves. They erase the Macedonian inscriptions on the headstones, remove the bones and burn them.”

1929

Greek Government enacts law where any demands for national rights for Macedonians are regarded as high treason.

LAW 4096 directive on renaming Macedonian place names.

1936

Reign of terror by fascist dictator General Metaxas, (1936-40). Macedonians suffer state terrorism and pogroms.

Thousands of Macedonians jailed, sent to internal exile (EXORIA) on arid, inhospitable Greek islands, where many perish. Their crime? Being ethnic Macedonian by birth.

LAW 6429 reinforces Law 4096 on Greekization of toponyms (place names).

DECREE 87 accelerates denationalization of Macedonians.

Greek Ministry of Education sends “Specially trained” instructors to accelerate conversion to Greek language.

1938

LAW 23666 bans the use of the Macedonian language and strives to erase every trace of the Macedonian identity.

Macedonians fined, beaten or jailed for speaking Macedonian. Adults and school children further humiliated by being forced to drink castor oil when caught speaking Macedonian.

LAW 1418 reinforces previous laws on renaming.

1940

39 more place-names Greekized since 1929.

1945

LAW 697 more regulations on renaming toponyms in Aegean Macedonia.

1947

LAW L-2 citizens suspected of opposing Greek government in Civil War stripped of their citizenship, including relatives, arbitrarily and without due process.

1948

LAW M properties confiscated from citizens who fought against government and those accused of assisting.

28,000 child refugees, mostly Macedonians, from areas of heavy fighting evacuated to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Greece denies their right of return to this day.

RESOLUTION 193C (III) United Nations Resolution calls for repatriation to Greece of child refugees.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 19: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive an impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

DECREE 504 continues property confiscations of exiles and colonization of Aegean Macedonia with people from Turkey, Egypt and other parts of Greece. Parcels of land given to the colonists along with financial incentives.

1959

LAW 3958 allows confiscation of property of those who left Greece and did not return within five years.

Several villages in Aegean Macedonia forced to swear “Language Oaths” to speak only Greek and renounce their mother Macedonian tongue.

1962

DECREE 4234 reinforces past laws regarding confiscated properties of political exiles and denies them right to return.

1968

EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS accuses Greece of human rights abuses.

1969

Council of Europe declares Greece “undemocratic, illiberal, authoritarian, and oppressive”. Greece forced to resign from Council of Europe under threat of expulsion.

Military Junta continues the policy of colonizing the confiscated lands in Aegean Macedonia. Land handled over to persons with a “proven patriotism” for Greece.

European Convention For the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms signed by Greece states: ARTICLE 10(1) “Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers”.

1976

DECREE 233 suspends about 150 past decrees, government decisions and laws since 1913. Regulations for the confiscation of properties belonging to Macedonian political exiles not affected.

1979

135 places renamed in Aegean Macedonia since 1940. The Greek vigil regarding names is an indicator of the Macedonian ethnic identity in Aegean Macedonia.

1982

Greek internal security police urges intensive campaign to wipe out remaining Macedonian language and consciousness in Aegean Macedonia.

LAW 106841 political exiles who fled during the Civil War and were stripped of their citizenship are allowed to return providing they are “Greek by ethnic origin”. The same rights are denied to Macedonian political exiles born in the Aegean Macedonia.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 17, “No one can be deprived of his own property against his will”.

1985

DECREE 1540, Political exiles who fled during Civil War allowed to reclaim confiscated lands provided they are “Greeks by ethnic origin”. Same rights denied to Macedonian exiles born in Aegean Macedonia.

U.N. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 13, “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, as well as to return to his own country”.

1986

International writers’ organization, PEN, condemns Greece’s denial of the existence of Macedonians and their language.

Greece escalates climate of fear in Aegean Macedonia.

Greece officially calls the Republic of Macedonia as the “Republic of Skopje”, after the name of its capital city; and Macedonians are called “Skopjans”.

The term “Skopjans” used to label Greek citizens who declare themselves as ethnic Macedonians. “Skopjans” laced with hatred, and racism. It connotes a traitor to Hellenism.

1990

CSCE COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN DIMENSION, to which Greece is a signatory, states in ARTICLE 32: “Persons belonging to national minorities have the right freely to express, preserve, and develop their ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious identity and to maintain and develop their culture in all its aspects, free of any attempts as assimilation against their will”. ARTICLE 33: “Participating states will protest the ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of national minorities…and create conditions for the promotion of that identity”.

GREEK HIGH COURT DECISION 19 refuses registration of “CENTER FOR MACEDONIAN CULTURE” in Florina (Lerin). Appeal is turned down by High Appeals Court in Salonika. Further appeal dismissed by Supreme Administrative Council of Greece in Athens.

1991

CSCE MEETING ON NATIONAL MINORITIES IN GENEVA, in which Greece participated states: “Issues concerning national minorities…are matters of legitimate international concern and consequently do not constitute exclusively an internal affair of the respective State…Participating States reaffirm, and will not hinder the exercise of, the right of persons belonging to national minorities to establish and maintain their own educational, cultural and religious institutions, organizations and associations”.

Belligerent anti-Macedonian propaganda incites Greek population into a state of chauvinistic hysteria.

Translation from Greek: “Hang the Skopje Gypsies”

1992

Greece and Serbia conspire to overthrow and partition the Republic of Macedonia.

1993

Macedonian human rights activists Hristos Sidiropoulos and Tasos Boulis were prosecuted under Greek Panel Code: Article 36, Para 191; disseminating false information; Para 192; inciting citizens to disturb the peace. Their crime? Declaring themselves as Macedonians in an interview for Greek magazine ENA.

Macedonian human rights activist and priest Nikodimos Tsarknias derobed and expelled by Greek Orthodox Church because of his human rights activities. Tsarknias refused a Greek bribe which would have elevated him to bishop in 1989. He received death threats.

1994

Extremists of Australia’s Greek Community burn two Macedonian churches, after Australian recognition of Macedonia.

Greece continues to deny the existence of Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary.

Greece continues repressive and unrelenting policies against Macedonians in Aegean Macedonia despite objections by international human rights organizations.

Macedonian village names

July 23, 2007

THE NAMES OF 804 MACEDONIAN VILLAGES IN AEGEAN MACEDONIA,
occupied by Greece in 1912, that have forcedly been changed from 1926 and forward.
Submitted by Lena Jankovski and Alex Bakratcheff

Following the 1913 Treatry of Bucharest, the Macedonian place names that existed were gradually changed to Greek named, this included people’s family and given names, and was called Hellenization.
1927 Greek Government Legislative Edict
The Greek Government Gazette declared that “there are not any non-Greek people in Greece”. This was part of a process whereby all the names of Macedonian villages, towns, regions, etc. were changed, together with the surnames of ethnic Macedonians, into Greek versions.
1934-1941 Military Dictatorship in Greece
At its height, the Facists regime prohibits the speaking of Macedonian.

MACEDONIAN NAME (District) Greek changed name
————————– ————————-

Agova mahala (Ser) Adelfikon
Ahil (Kostur) Agios Ahileos
Aivatovo (Solun) Liti
Ajtos Lerin) Aetos
Akandzhaly (Kukush) Muries
Alchak (Kukush) Hamilon
Alistrat (Ser) Alistrati
Apidija (Ser)
Aposkep (Kostur) Aposkepos
Arapli (Solun) Lehanokipos
Armensko (Lerin) Alonas
Arsen (Voden) Poliplatanon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Babakjoj (Kukush) Mesja
Babchor (Kostur) Pimenikon
Baldzha (Solun) Melisohorion
Banitza (Lerin) Vevi
Banitza (Ser) Karie
Barakli Dzhumaja (Ser) Valteron
Barovitza (Kukush) Kastaneri
Bejlik mahale (Ser) Valtotopi
Bela Tzarkva (Kostur)
Bel Kamen (Lerin) Drosopigi
Belotintzi (Drama) Levkoija
Ber (Solun) Veria (Imatja)
Berishcha Ptelea
Besvina (Kostur) Sfika
Biraltzi (Kozhany) Perdikas
Bitushe Parorion
Bizovo Megaloplatanos
Blatza (Kostur) Oksies
Blatze Ahladia
Bobishcha (Kostur) Vergas
Boevo Katsanovo
Bogatsko (Kostur) Agios Nikolaos
Bojmitza (Kukush) Aksiupolis
Boreshnitza Palestra
Boriany Agios Atanasios
Borislav Periklia
Borovo Potami
Bostandzievtzi (Kostur)
Bozhetz (Voden) Atiras
Brest (Kukush) Akrolimnion
Breshcheny (Kostur) Kria Nera
Breznitza (Kostur) Vatohorion
Bruhovo Kokina Egri
Buf Akrita
Buf (Lerin) Bufi
Bugarievo (Solum) Karavias
Buk Paranestion
Bukovik (Kostur) Oksia
Bulamasli Akakies
Bultishta Profitis Ilias
Bumboki (Kostur) Makrohori
Butkovo Kerkini
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Chavdar Psomotopi
Chegan (Lerin) Meteora
Chegan (Voden) Agios Atanasios
Chekri (Voden) Paralimni
Cherepljan (Ser) Tserepljani
Chereshnitza (Kostur) Polikerason
Chereshovo (Drama) Tisavros
Chereshovo Pagoneri
Cherkezkjoi (Lerin) Limnohori
Cherkovian Klidohor
Cherna reka (Kukush) Karpi
Chernak Strotis
Chernova Fitia
Chernovishcha (Kostur) Mavrokampos
Chetirok (Kostur) Mesopotamja
Chichigaz (Voden) Stavrodromi
Chiflik(Radogozhe)(Kostur) Triha
Chirpishcha (Ser) Terpni
Chor (Kozhany) Galatija
Chuchuligovo (Ser) Anagenizis
Chuguntzi (Kukush) Megali Sterna
Chuka (Kostur) Puka
Churilovo (Kostur) Tsirilovon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Dabovo (Kukush) Valtotopi
Dambeni (Kostur) Dendrohori
Darovo Kehrokampos
Dautli (Kukush) Ambelohori
Debretz (Kozhany) Anarahi
Demir Hisar (Ser) Sidirokastron (Sintiki)
Dere Kalitea
Dervent Akritodohori
Dobrolishcha (Kostur) Kalohori
Doksat (Drama) Doksaton
Doleny (Kostur) Zevgostasi
Dolni Poroj (Ser) Kato Poroja
Dolno Drenoveny (Kostur) Kato Kranionas
Dolno Garbali Kato Surmena
Dolno Kalenik (Lerin) Kato Kaleniki
Dolno Kleshtino Kato Klene
Dolno Kotori (Lerin) Kato Idrusa
Dolno Krushevo (Ser) Kato Kerdilion
Dolno Kufalovo (Solun) Kufalja
Dolno Nevoljani (Lerin) Valtonera
Dolno Papratsko (Kostur) Kato Fterias
Dolno Rodivo Kato Korifi
Dovishta (Ser) Papas Emanuil
Drachevo Levkotea
Dragomantzi Apsalos
Dragomir Vapsiohori
Dragosh Zevgolatio
Dragotin (Ser) Promahon
DRAMA DRAMA
Dramendzhik Drakontion
Dranich Antifilipi
Dranichevo (Kostur)
Dravunishta Geraki
Dremiglava Drimos
Drenichevo (Kostur) Kranohori
Drenoveny (Kostur) Kranionas
Drenovo (Kostur) Glikoneri
Drenovo (Ser) Dranovan
Drenovo Monastiraki
Dreveno Pili
Drobishcha (Kostur) Daseri
Druska Drosia
Dudular (Solun) Djavata
Dupjak (Kostur) Dispilion
Durbanli (Kukush) Sinoron
Durdanli (Kukush) Patohori
Durgutli Nigdi
Dutli Eleon
Dzhuma (Kozhany) Amigdala
Dzuma Migdala
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Egri Dere (Drama) Kalitea
Ehatli Kavalaris
Ekshi-su (Lerin) Ksino Nero
Eleovo (Kostur) Lakia
Eleshnitza (Ser) Fea Pitra
Elshen (Ser) Karperi
Embore (Kozhany) Enborion
Enidzhe-Vardar (Voden) Janitza
Enikjoi (Ser) Provatas
Ezeretz (Kostur) Petropulaki
Ezhovo (Ser) Dafni
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Fetishcha Pola Nera
Fotinishcha (Kostur) Fotini
Fotovishcha Valtohoro
Frankovitza Ermakia
Futzeli Semeli
Fustani Evropos
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Gabresh (Kostur) Gavros
Galishcha (Kostur) Omorfoklisia
Garbasel Kastanies
Gariptzi Hloronomos
Garleni (Kostur) Hionaton
Gaskarla Kalohori
Gavalantsi (Kukush) Valtudi
Gavrishcha Dorotea
Gedi-Dermen Eptomili
Georgolik (Kukush) Gorgopi
Gerakartzi (Kukush) Gerakonos
German (Ser) Shistolitos
Gevsekli Rematia
Gjulobasi Pikrolimni
Gjumendzhe (Kukush) Gumenitza (Peonija)
Gjumenich Stiva
Gjundzheli Vamvakuza
Gjupchevo Gipsohori
Gjuredzhik (Drama) Granitis
Gjuvezna Asiros
Globoshchitza Kalohorio
Gola Korifes
Golem Besik Megali Volvi
Golem Sevidrik Megalokampos
Golema Livada (Voden) Megala Livadija
Golishani (Voden) Levkadia
Golo selo (Voden) Gimna
Gorentzi (Kostur) Korisos
Gorjantzi (Drama)
Gorna Nushka Ano Dafnudi
Gorni Kotor (Lerin) Ano Idrusa
Gorni Metoh (Ser)
Gorni Poroj (Ser) Ano Poroja
Gorni Postular Ano Apostoli
Gornitza Kalivrisi
Gornichevo (Lerin) Keli
Gorno Brodi (Ser) Ano Vrondu
Gorno Drenoveny (Kostur) Ano Kranionas
Gorno Garbali Ano Surmena
Gorno Karadzhovo (Ser) Monoklisia
Gorno Klestino Ano Klene
Gorno Krushare Ekso Asladohori
Gorno Krushovo (Ser) Ano Kerdilion
Gorno Kufalovo (Solun) Kuflja
Gorno Kumanichevo (Kostur)
Gorno Nevoljani (Lerin) Skopja
Gorno Papratsko (Kostur) Ano Fterias
Gorno Pozharsko (Voden) Ano Lutraki
Gorno Rodivo (Voden) Ano Korifi
Gorno Selo Ano Vermion
Gosno (Kostur)
Govlishta Krokos
Gradishte Kiros
Gradobor (Solun) Gradeboin
Gradobor Nikopolis
Grache (Kostur) Ftelia
Gramos (Kostur) Gramos
Granichevo Krioneri
Grazhden Vronteron
Grazhdino (Kostur) Vronderon
Gropino Voltolivado
Gugovo (Voden) Viritja
Gulintzi (Lerin) Rodonas
Gurbesh Agriosikia
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Hadzhi-bejlik Vironia
Hadzhi-bajramli Teodosia
Hadzhik Filiros
Hajderli (Kozhany) Klitos
Harava Polikilon
Harbino (Kozhany) Ftelionas
Harman-kjoi Stadmos
Harsovo Herson
Hasanovo (Lerin) Mesohori
Haznatar Hrizohorafa
Hedzik Fikiros
Hodzhovo Karidia
Holeva Amision
Homandos (Ser)
Hristos (Ser) Hristos
Hrupishcha (Kostur) Argos Orestikon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Ilezli Inoi
Ilidzhievo (Solun)
Indzes Eratni
Ineli (Kozhany) Anatolikon
Ineovo Avrini
Ishirli Platanotopos
Istrane Perasma
Izbishcha (Drama) Agriokerasia
Izglibe (Kostur) Poria
Izvor (Kukush) Pigi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Jadzilar Ksilokeratia
Janchishcha (Solun) Janisa
Janes Metaliko
Janikia Askos
Janovene (Kostur) Janohori
Janozli Karpofonom
Jaramzli Ajdonia
Javor Diamezon
Javoreny (Voden) Platani
Javornitza Nea Kuklina
Juklemes (Kozhany) Farangi
Jundzhular Kimina
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Kabasnitza (Lerin) Proti
Kadinovo (Voden) Galatas
Kajachaly Triadi
Kajali Vrahia
Kajljari (Kozhany) Ptolemajs (Eordeja)
Kalapot (Drama) Paleon Kalapoti
Kalenik (Lerin)
Kalevishcha (Kostur) Kali Vrisi
Kalinovo (Kukush) Sutojaneika
Kaljany Eani
Kamareto (Ser) Kamaroti
Kamenik Petrias
Kamila (Ser) Ano Kamili
Kandza Aniksia
Kapinjany Eksaplatanos
Kara-bej Karna
Kara-bunar (Kukush) Mavroneri
Kara-bunar (Solun) Angelofrori
Kara-bunar (Kozhany) Mavropigi
Kara-Chali (Solun) Mavrodendri
Kara-Chali (Drama) Mavrovatos
Kara-Chali (Ser) Kaliroj
Kara-chukali Kardia
Karadzha Evangelizmos
Karadzha-kjoi (Solun) Kartera
Karadzha-kjoi (Drama) Tolos
Karadzhova Elafohori
Karagatz Mavrodendri
Kara-ilar Drepanon
Kara-kjoj Kalegiri
Kara-kjoj (Drama) Katafiton
Kara-mahala Koronia
Karamanli Agios Kozmos
Karandzhilari Zarkadia
Kara-sule (Kukush) Polikastron
Kara-tepe Mavrolofos
Karchishta Polianemon
Karchovo Koridohori
Kardzhalar Adendron
Karilova Zardadion
Karladovo Milias
Karlakovo Mikropolis
Karli-kjoi (Ser) Hionohoron
Karpeny (Kostur)
Katranitza (Kozhany) Pirgi
Katun Dipotama
Kavadzhik Levkadi
Kavakli (Drama) Egiros
Kavakli (Kukush) Perintos
Kavakli (Ser) Levkonas
KAVALA KAVALA
Kazanovo Kotili
Kesedzhi Chiflik (Ser) Sidirohorion
Kiklova Kastanies
Kirech-kjoi (Solun) Azevstohorion
Kjospekli (Ser) Skutari
Klabuchishta Poliplatanos
Kladorobi (Lerin) Kladorahi
Klepushna (Ser) Agriani
Klishali Prositis
Klisura (Kostur) Klisura
Kobalishte (Drama) Kokinoja
Kochan Rizana
Kochana Perea
Kochany Kostani
Kokova Polidendri
Kolaritza Manjaki
Kolibi (Kukush) Skinite
Komarjan Kimaria
Komen (Kozhany) Komanos
Kondorbi (Kostur)
Konitza Pevki
Konikovo Stiba
Konomlady (Kostur) Makrohori
Konsko Talakini
Konuj (Kozhany) Elos
Korchak Mirini
Koriten (Kukush) Ksirohori
Kormishta (Ser) Kormista
Kornishor (Voden) Kromni
Kosinetz (Kostur) Jeropigi
Kosinovo Polipetron
KOSTUR KASTORIA
Kosturadzhe (Kostur) Ksifonia
KOZHANY KOZANY
Kozhusany Filotia
Kozlukjoi (Kozhany) Kariohori
Kramtza Mezovunos
Kranishta Dendrari
Krastali Korona
Krechovo Agios Jorgios
Krepeshino (Lerin) Atrapos
Kriva (Kukush) Grivas
Krontzelevo (Voden) Kerasies
Krushari Ampelies
Krushoradi (Lerin) Ahlada
Krushovo (Ser) Ahladohorion
Kuchkari Galini
Kuchkoveny (Lerin) Perazma
KUKUSH KILKIS
Kula Paleokastron
Kulakija Halastra
Kumanich (Drama) Dasaton
Kumanichevo (Kostur) Litia
Kumli (Ser) Amudja
Kurchishcha (Kostur) Polianemon
Kurchovo (Ser) Karidohori (Liebra)
Kushinovo (Kukush) Polipetron
Kushovo Kokina
Kutlesh Vergina
Kula Paleokastron
Kutuger Halastra
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Labanitza (Kostur) Agios Dimitrios
Ladza Terma
Lanki Mikrolimni
Lagino (Lerin) Triandafilia
Lagadina (Solun) Litokastron (Langadas)
Lakavigtza Mikromilia
Langa (Kozhany) Milohori
Latrovo Hortero
Lazheny (Lerin) Mesonisi
Lebishevo (Kostur) Aila
Lehovo (Ser) Krasohori
Lelovo (Kukush) Agios Antonios
Lembed Evkarpia
LERIN FLORINA
Leskovetz (Lerin) Leptokaries
Leskovo Tria Elata
Lestan Farasinon
Leveny Vasiludi
Liban Skaloti
Libanovo Eginion
Libjahovo (Drama)
Lichishta (Kostur) Polikarpos
Likovan Ksilopolis
Likovishta Likojani
Lipintzi (Kozhany) Azvestopetra
Lipush (Ser) Filira
Lise Ohiron
Ljubetino (Lerin) Pedinon
Ljumnitza Skra
Loshnitza (Kostur) Germas
Lovcha (Drama) Kalikarpon
Lovcha (Ser) Akrohori
Lozanovo Palefiton
Lozitza Mezolofos
Ludovo (Kostur) Kria Nera
Luguntzi (Voden) Langadia
Lukovich Sotira
Lunki (Kostur) Mikro Limno
Luvrade (Kostur) Skieron
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Machukovo (Kukush) Evzoni
Mahala (Lerin) Tropeuhos
Mahaledzik Milorema
Malak Besik Mikra Volvi
Malesh (Ser) Vamvakja
Malko-Osmanli Kosmiti
Malovtzi Hilioluston
Mangila (Mogila) (Kostur) Ano Perivoli
Manjak (Kostur) Manjaki
Marchishcha (Kostur) Kato Perivoli
Markoveny (Kostur) Markohori
Mavrovo (Solun) Mavruda
Mavrovo (Kostur) Mavrohori
Mech Mezi
Medovo (Kostur) Milionas
Melnikich (Ser) Melenikitzion
Menteseli Eli
Mentesli Moshuia
Merjan Ligaria
Mertatevo Ksirotopos
Mesely Drias
Mesimer (Voden) Mesimeri
Mezdurek Melisurgio
Mijalovo (Kukush) Mihalitzi
Milovo Megali Gefira
Mirovo Eliniko
Mokreny (Kostur) Variko
Mokro Polikrinos
Morafca Antigonia
Morartzi (Kukush)
Mramor Kapetanudi
Mrsna Gonimon
Munchino Lekani
Munuhy Mavrotalasa
Muralar Pelagros
Muralti Skopos
Murodonli Mirovliton
Mursali Monokaridia
Musacali Aetofolia
Muselim Aedonokastron
Muska Kudunia
Mutulovo Metaksohori
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Negochany Niri
Negovan (Lerin) Flamburion
Negush Nausa
Nered (Lerin) Polipotamon
Nesram (Nestram)(Kostur) Nestorion
Nestime (Kostur) Nastimon
Neukazy (Lerin) Neohoraki
Neveska (Lerin) Nimfeon
Nevoleny (Lerin) Skopia
Nevoleny Vamvaria
Nigoslav Nikoklia
Nigrita (Ser) Nigrita (Visaltija)
Nisia (Voden) Nision
Nivitza (Kostur) Psarades
Novi Grad (Lerin) Ve Gora
Novoseltzi Joromilos
Novo Selo (Kostur) Korfula
Novo Selo (Solun) Nehorion
Novo Selo (Solun) Neohoruda
Novoseljany (Kostur) Nea Komi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Obor Aravizos
Obsirena Etnikon
Oktzilar Toksote
Oladzhak Platamon
Olishcha (Kostur) Melisotopos
Omotzko (Kostur) Livadotopos
Opaja (Kostur) Opaja
Orchovitza Pevkodazos
Organdzhi (Drama) Organzi
Organdzilar Sapeon
Orizartzi (Kukush) Rizia
Orizari (Voden) Rizarion (Rizo)
Orljak (Ser) Strimonikon
Orman (Kostur) Kato-Levki
Ormanli (Drama) Polikarpos
Ormanli (Ser) Dasohori
Ormanovo Dasero
Orovnik (Kostur) Karie
Orovo (Kostur) Piksos
Osheny (Kostur) Inoi
Oshchima (Kostur) Trigonon
Osin Argangelos
Osljani Agios Fotini
Oslovo Panagitza
Osmanitza Kalos Agros
Osmanli (Pravishta) Hrisokastron
Osmanli (Haldiki) Neromilos
Osnichani (Kostur) Kastanofiton
Ostitza Mikromilia
Ostima Trigonon
Ostrovo (Voden) Arnisa
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Palior (Kozhany) Fufa
Palmes Kastanusa
Papdia (Lerin) Papagja
Papli (Kostur) Levkonas
Paprat Pontokerasia
Pastrovo Kalikrunon
Patele (Lerin) Agios Panteleimon
Patele Pontokerasia
Patichino Patima
Pataros (Kukush) Drosaton
Pazarlar Agora
Pazarli (Haldiki) Dikorfon
Pazarli (Kukush) Melansion
Pejkovo Agios Markoc
Pejzanovo (Solun) Azevstohorion
Pelkati Monopili
Pernovali Agia Ekaterini
Pesjak (Kostur) Amudara
Pesochnitza (Lerin) Amohorion
Petersko (Lerin) Petras
Petgas (Kukush) Pentalofos
Petoritza Hrizohori
Petrovo (Kukush) Agios Petros
Pilkadi (Kostur) Monopilon
Pilorik (Voden) Pilorigi
Piskopija (Voden) Episkopi
Pisoder (Kostur) Pisoderion
Planitza Fiska
Plashnichevo Kria Vrisi
Pleshevitza (Lerin) Kolhiki
Plevna (Drama) Petrusa
Plugar (Voden) Ludias
Pochep (Voden) Margarita
Pod (Voden) Podos
Podgorjany Podohorion
Poljany Polikarpi
Ponor (Kozhany)
Popli (Lerin) Lefkonas
Popolzhany (Lerin) Papajanis
Popovo (Kukush) Miriofiton
Porna Gazoros
Postol (Voden) Pela (Agio Apostoli)
Potores Agia Kiriaki
Pozdivishcha (Kostur) Halara
Pozhari (Solun) Kefalohori
Prahna Aspro
Pravishte (Kavala) Elefteropolis (Pamgeon)
Prebadishte Sosandra
Prekopana (Kostur)
Prekopana (Lerin) Perikopi
Presechen (Drama) Protzani
Pribojna Vunohoron
Prosenik (Ser) Skotusa
Prosochen Pirsopolis
Provishta Palekomi
Pselsko Kipseli
Psore (Kostur) Ipsilon
Puljovo Termopigi
Purlida Konhilia
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Radigoze Agia Ana
Radomir (Kukush) Asvestario
Radovishta Rodjani
Radovo Haropo
Radunishta (Kozhany) Krio Vrisi
Ragjan Vati
Rahmanli (Kukush) Antigoni
Rahmanli (Lerin) Eleuza
Rahmanli (Kozhany) Galina
Rahovitza Marmaras
Rahovo (Solun) Rahia
Rahovo (Drama) Mezorahi
Rajkovche (Ser) Kapnotopos
Rakistan Katahloron
Rakita (Kozhany) Olimpias
Radovo Krateron
Ramel Rahona
Ramna (Kukush) Monoliti
Ramna (Voden) Omalon
Ramna (Kozhany) Omalon
Ranislav Agati
Rantzi (Kozhany) Ermakja
Rapes Drepani
Rasovo Limon
Ravenia Makriplagi
Ravitza Kalifiton
Ravna (Ser) Isoma
Razenik Haradra
Rehimli Mezia
Resen Sitaria
Resilovo Haritomeni
Retini Riakon
Revany (Kostur) Dipotamja
Rizovo Rizo
Rjamentzi (Ser)
Robovo Rodonas
Rudari (Kostur) Ekalitea
Rudino Aloras
Rulja (Kostur) Katohori
Rumbi Lemos
Rum-Saret Vromosiria
Rupel (Ser) Klidion
Rupishcha (Kostur)
Rusinovo (Drama) Ksantogia
Rusovo Makroliti
Ruzheny Rizohori
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Sabotsko (Voden) Ardeja (Almopija)
Sachishcha (Kozhany) Sjatista
Sadina Karavi
Sakaftza Evadohori
Sakulevo Marina
Salamanli Galikos
Salpovo (Kozhany) Ardasa
Samar (Voden) Samari
Samokovo Domatia
Saratzi Falara
Saradza Valtohori
Saraj Sholarion
Sarajli Palatianon
Sarakinovo (Lerin) Sarakini
Sara-pazar (Kukush) Antofiton
Sarashaban Hrisopolis
Sari-gjol (Kukush) Kriston
Sarmusakli (Ser) Pendapolis
Sarmusalari Kokinohori
Savek (Ser) Vamvakofiton
Sborsko (Voden) Revkoton
Sehovo (Kukush) Idomeni
Seljany Mezorena
Semasi (Kostur) Kremaston
Sendelchevo Sandali
Seneleli Rodokipos
SER SERES
Seremeti Fanarion
Serermli Kserovrisi
Seslovo (Kukush) Sevaston
Setina (Lerin) Skopos
Setoma (Kostur) Kefalari
Sevendekli Eptalofon
Severjany Vorino
Sfiltzi Hromion
Shakovitza (Kostur)
Shekerki (Kukush) Zaharaton
Sheshtevo (Kostur) Sidirohori
Shilinos (Ser) Sfelinos
Shijak (Kostur) Komninades
Shkrapar (Kostur)
Shlimnishcha (Kostur) Milica
Shljopintsi (Kukush) Dogani
Shtarkovo (Kostur) Plati
Sicevo Sidirohori
Siderova Mezovuni
Singelevo (Ser)
Sivry Nea Mahala
Skrizhevo (Ser) Skopia
Slatina (Kostur) Hrisi
Slatina (Voden) Hrisi
Sliveny (Kostur) Koromilia
Smol (Kukush) Mikron Dasos
Smurdesh (Kostur) Kristalopigi
Snicheny (Kostur)
Sokol (Ser) Sikja
Sokolovo Parapotomos
SOLUN THESSALONIKI
Sosuri Nimfi
Spantzi (Lerin) Fanos
Spantzi (Kukush) Latomi
Spatjovo (Ser) Kimesis
Spirlitovo Plagiari
Sporlita Elefina
Srebreny (Lerin) Asproija
Starchishta (Drama) Peritorion
Starichany (Kostur) Lakomata
Statitza (Kostur) Melas
Stavros (Solun) Stavros
Stavrovo Stavrodromi
Stensko (Kostur) Stena
Straishta Ida
Strezovo (Kukush) Argirupolis
Strupino Likostomon
Subas-Kjoj Neon Suli
Sufilar (Halkidiki) Angelohori
Sufilar (Kavala) Angelohori
Suha-banja (Tashino ezero) Paliotros
Suha-banja (Ser) Ksilotros
Suho (Solun) Sohos
Sujudzuk Lima
Sulovo Amaranta
Surlevo (Kukush) Amaranda
Surovichevo (Lerin) Amindeon
Sveta Marina (Ber) Agia Marina
Sveta Nedelja (Kostur) Agia Kiriaki
Sveta Petka (Lerin) Agia Paraskevi
Sveti Atanas (Drama) Agios Atanasios
Sveti Ilija (Voden) Profitis Ilias
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Tagramishevo Idromilos
Tarlis (Drama) Vatitopos
Tarlis Sidirohori
Tarnaa (Kostur)
Tarnovo (Kostur) Ankatoton
Tarsje (Kostur) Trivunon
Tehovo (Voden) Karadjas
Tekelievo (Solun) Sindos
Tekri Paralimni
Tekri-Vermisly Kserorevma
Telkili Petralona
Tikisli Talasia
Tikveny (Kostur) Kalokinton
Tiolishcha (Kostur) Tihion
Todorak (Kukush)
Tohova Palionelines
Toilar Peristeri
Toma Avgo
Toptzi Gefira
Topchilar Agios Dimitrios
Topljany Jorgjani
Topola Kiriaki
Topoljan (Ser) Hrisos
Topchievo (Solun) Gerifa
Topolovo Nea Tiroloi
Tranka (Ser) Damaskinon
Trebeno (Kozhany) Kardja
Treboletz Tripolis
Trepishcha (Kozhany) Agios Hristoforos
Tresino (Voden) Ormai
Trifulchevo Trifili
Trihovishcha Kamiohori
Tuhol (Kostur) Pevkos
Tukovo Leptokaria
Tumba (Ser) Neos Skopos
Tumba (Kukush) Tumba
Tumba Emvolos
Turbesh (Ser) Makriotisa
Turcheli Trakiko
Tukitza Trias
Turje (Kostur) Korifi
Turmanli Rodonia
Tursko selo Milopotamos
Tushilovo (Kukush) Statis
Tusin (Voden) Aetohiri
Tzakoni (Kostur)
Tzarmarinovo (Voden) Marina
Tzarvishta (Ser) Kapnofiton
Tzerovo (Lerin) Klidi
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Udzhana (Kozhany) Komninon
Ugurli Peristereon
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Vadrishta (Kukush) Kambohorion
Vadrishta (Voden) Palea Milotopos
Vadrishta Milotopos
Valchshta Domeron
Valgatzi (Kukush) Kambohorion
Valkojanovo (Voden) Liki
Valkovo Hrisokefolos
Vambel (Kostur) Mosohori
Varbeny (Lerin) Itja
Varbnik (Kostur)
Varlankza Agroniri
Vartokop (Voden) Skidra
Vartolom Agios Vartolomeos
Vardarovtzi Aksiohori
Vardino Limnotopos
Vates Nea Epivate
Vatilak (Solun) Vatilakon
Vazheny Sevastia
Vazme (Drama) Eksohori
Veldziler Dimaros
Velishti Levkopigi
Verzhjany Kato Psihiko
Vetrina Neo Petrici
Veshtitza (Solun) Angelohorion
Veznik (Ser) Monikon
Vidulushche (Kostur)
Vichishcha (Kostur)
Vineny (Kostur) Pili
Virlan Anavrito
Vishen (Ser) Visjani
Visheny (Kostur) Vissinia
Visochan Ksiropotamos
Visoka Osa
Vitachishta (Ser) Vitasta
Vitan (Kostur) Votani
Vitivjany Polifiton
Vitovo Delta
Vladikovo Oropedion
Vladovo (Voden) Agras
VODEN EDESSA
Vojvodina (Kozhany) Spilia
Volak (Drama) Volaks
Volchishta (Ser) Domiros
Volchishta Idoea
Volovot Nea Santa
Voronos Kikomidinon
Vosova Sfikia
Voshtarany (Lerin) Meliti
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Zabardeny (Kostur) Melantion
Zabardeny (Lerin) Lofi
Zagoricheny (Kostur) Vasilias
Zahartzi Tagarades
Zarnovo (Drama) Kato Nevrokopion
Zarovo (Solun) Nikopolis
Zdraltza (Kostur) Ampelokipi
Zdravik Draviskos
Zeleniche (Lerin) Sklitron
Zhelegozhe (Kostur) Pentavrison
Zhelevo (Kostur) Andartikon
Zhelin (Kostur) Heliodendron
Zhensko (Kukush) Ginekokastron
Zherveny (Kostur) Agios Antonios
Zhupanishcha (Kostur) Anolevki
Zhuzheltzy (Kostur) Spilea
Ziljahovo Nea Zihni
Ziljahovo (Ser) Filidos
Zimbjul mahala Pevkolofos
Zorbatovo (Solun) Mikro Monastiri
Zulitza Spitea

Macedonia – In all international languages!

July 20, 2007
eng / ast / cym / glg / ina / ita / lat / lld / pol / roh / ron / spa: Macedonia
bre / fin / jav / kal / nor / sme: Makedonia
afr / lim / nld: Macedonië
cat / oci / srd: Macedònia
hrv / lit / slv: Makedonija
arg / eus: Mazedonia
dan / swe: Makedonien
fra / jnf: Macédoine
kaa / uzb: Makedoniya / Македония
kur / zzz: Makedonya / ماکه‌دۆنیا
aze: Makedoniya / Македонија
bam: Maseduwani
bos: Makedonija / Македонија
ces: Makedonie; Macedonie
csb: Macedonijô; Macedońskô
deu: Mazedonien / Mazedonien; Makedonien / Makedonien
dje: Masidoniya
dsb: Makedońska
epo: Makedonujo; Makedonio
est: Makedoonia
fao: Makedónia
fry: Masedoanje
fur: Macedonie
gla: Macadòinia; Masadonia
gle: An Mhacadóine / An Ṁacadóine
glv: Yn Vasseydoan
hat: Masedwan; Masedoni
hsb: Makedonska
hun: Macedónia
ibo: Masedọnia
ind: Makedonia / ماكيدونيا
isl: Makedónía
kmr: Makêdonî / Македони / ماکێدۆنی
lav: Maķedonija
ltz: Mazedonien / Mazedonien
mlg: Makedônia
mlt: Maċedonja
mol: Macedonia / Мачедония
mos: Masedoan
mri: Maketōnia; Makerōnia
msa: Macedonia / ماسيدونيا
nbl: iMakhedoniya
nds: Makedonien / Makedonien
nrm: Basse-Macédouène
por: Macedónia / Macedônia
que: Masidunya
rmy: Makedoniya / माकेदोनिया
rup: Machedonia
scn: Macidonia
slk: Macedónsko
som: Makadooniya
sqi: Maqedonia
srd: Makedònia
swa: Macedonia; Makedonia
tat: Makedoniä / Македония
tet: Masedónia
ton: Masitōnia
tsn: Maketonia
tuk: Makedoniýa / Македония
tur: Makedonya
vie: Ma-xê-đô-ni-a
vol: Makedonän
vor: Makõdoonia
wln: Macedoneye
wol: Masedwaan
xho: iMakedoni
zul: iMakedoniya
got:  (Makidonja)
chu: Македонія (Makedonīja)
abq / alt / bak / bul / kaz / kir / kjh / kom / krc / kum / rus / tyv / udm: Македония (Makedonija)
che / chv / oss: Македони (Makedoni)
bel: Македонія / Makiedonija
chm: Македоний (Makedonij)
kbd: Македоние (Makedonie)
mkd: Македонија (Makedonija)
mon: Македон (Makedon)
srp: Македонија / Makedonija
tgk: Мақдуния (Maqdunija) / مقدونیه (Maqdūniyâ)
ukr: Македонія (Makedonija)
ara: مقدونيا (Maqdūniyā); مكدونيا (Makdūniyā)
fas: مقدونیه (Maqdūnīye); مکادونیه (Makādūnīye)
kab: ماسيدونيا / Masidunya
prs: مقدونیا (Maqedūniyā)
pus: مکدونيا (Makədoniyā); مقدونيا (Maqədoniyā)
uig: ماكېدونىيە / Makédoniye
urd: میسیڈونیا (Mæseḋoniyā); مقدونیہ (Maqdūniyâ)
div: މެސިޑޯނިއާ (Mesiḋōni’ā)
arc: ܡܩܕܘܢܝܐ (Maqdūnyā)
heb: מקדוניה (Maqdônyah)
lad: מאסידוניה / Masedonia
yid: מאַקעדאָניע (Makedonye)
ell: Μακεδονία (Makedonía)
hye: Մակեդոնիա (Makedonia)
kat: მაკედონია (Makedonia)
hin: मैसेडोनिया (Mæseḍoniyā); मखदूनिया (Makʰdūniyā)
nep: म्यासेडोनिया (Mæseḍoniyā)
ben: মেসিডোনিয়া (Mesiḍoniyā)
pan: ਮੈਕਡੋਨੀਆ (Mækḍonīā)
kan: ಮೆಸಡೋನಿಯ (Mesaḍōniya)
mal: മസിഡോണിയ (Masiḍōṇiya)
tam: மசிடோனியா (Mačiṭōṉiyā)
zho: 馬其頓 / 马其顿 (Mǎqídùn)
jpn: マケドニア (Makedonia)
kor: 마케도니아 (Makedonia)
tha: มาซิโดเนีย (Māsidōniya)
khm: ម៉ាសេដូនី (Māsedūnī)
mya: မက္‌စီဒုိးနီယား (Meʿsidòniyà)

The Greek DNA

June 30, 2007

Lets turn to the matter od the origins of the Greeks…Look at the videos!

The Greek nation have no root on the Balkans…Their propaganda wants to steal my ancestors, the ancient Macedonians, like they want to steal the Turkish island of Cyprus…that is so poor…

SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION RACIAL MIXES

Both Aristotle and Plutarch discuss the racial characteristics of of second and third generation black-white racial mixes in their works:

Further, children are like their more remote ancestors from whom nothing has come, for the resemblances recur at an interval of many generations, as in the case of the woman in Elis who had intercourse with the Aethiop; her daughter was not an Aethiop but the son of the daughter was.” Aristotle, Gen. An. 1.18.722A

and

“But parents may pass on resemblance after several generations, as in the case of the woman in Elis, who committed adultery with a negro; in this case it was not the woman’s own daughter, but the daughter’s child that was a blackamoor” Aristotle, Hist. An; 7.6.586A.

Further references to racially mixed types stretching over generations can be found in Plutarch’s De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 21.

Also previously mentioned was the herm of Memnon, which, according to Graindor, was a Negroid pupil of Herodes Atticus. This herm is ”of mongrel race but with the Negro type of North Africa, Nubia or Abyssinia, being prevalent.”(”“de race métisse mais avec prédominance du type nègre du Nord de l’Afrique, de la Nubie ou de l’Abyssinie.” – GRAINIDOR, P., 1915 Tête de Nègre du Musée de Berlin. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 39, p. 402.)

CONCLUSION

This brief overview shows conclusively that:
1. The Ancient Greeks were well aware of the Negroid and mixed racial types;

2. That Blacks were present, as slaves, mercenaries or freedmen, in Classical Grecian times; and

3. That racial mixing took place.

http://www.white-history.com/greece_negroes.htm

http://www.white-history.com/greece.htm

Our results show that Macedonians are related to other Mediterraneans and do not show a close relationship with Greeks; however they do with Cretans (Tables 3, 4, Figs 1–3). This supports the theory that Macedonians are one of the most ancient peoples existing in the Balkan peninsula, probably long before arrival of the Mycaenian Greeks (10) about 2000 B.C. Other possible explanation is that they might have shared a genetic background with the Greeks before an hypothetical admixture between Greeks and sub-Saharans might have occurred.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11260506&dopt=AbstractPlus